About the bibliographies

The beginnings of this site are in a bibliography. I sought to gather in one place all the literature related to adverse effects of finasteride, with hyperlinks to abstracts on journal sites and PubMed.

This effort led to digging up the early papers on finasteride in the 1980s, and eventually to a 1974 paper by Joanne Imperato-McGinley and colleagues called ‘Steroid 5alpha-reductase deficiency in man: an inherited form of male pseudohermaphroditism’ (abstract). This paper provided the original inspiration for the 5-alpha reductase drug class. It is a fascinating backstory that I hope to write about separately.

Selection principles

A key principle from the beginning has been to include all papers on the topic, not just those supporting a point of view. So, for example, the bibliography includes the sensationally titled paper: “Post-Finasteride Syndrome: An Induced Delusional Disorder with the Potential of a Mass Psychogenic Illness?” by Trüeb et al. There are papers that report null results, papers that conclude finasteride has an acceptable safety profile, and commentaries that express skepticism about the validity of ‘post-finasteride syndrome.’

Almost all papers are from peer-reviewed journals indexed by PubMed. A few conference papers have been included—published as supplements to journals, typically with a number at the beginning of the title (for example, ‘0917 Finasteride is Associated with a Higher Odds of Obstructive Sleep Apnea’).

Citations are in AMA format with slight modifications for readability.

Organization of bibliographies

The bibliography runs to about 350 papers in two parts: Early research (1974–1999) and Research since 2000.

This is an overwhelming list for anyone not familiar with the literature, so I created guides by theme and type of paper:


The bibliography continues to be updated. I have a PubMed alert to be notified of new, relevant papers.