RESEARCH

Research: 1974–1999

🐀 = animal study      🧬 = genetics focus      📚 = systematic review / meta-analysis

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See also: Historical timelineSources on early history

1999

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Bruskewitz R, Girman CJ, Fowler J, et al. Effect of finasteride on bother and other health-related quality of life aspects associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. PLESS Study Group. Proscar Long-term Efficacy and Safety Study. Urology. 1999;54(4):670-678. doi:10.1016/s0090-4295(99)00209-5

Cather JC, Lane D, Heaphy MR Jr, Nelson BR. Finasteride—an update and review. Cutis. 1999 Sep;64(3):167-72 | PubMed

Drake L, Hordinsky M, Fiedler V, et al. The effects of finasteride on scalp skin and serum androgen levels in men with androgenetic alopecia. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999;41(4):550‐554. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(99)80051-6 | PubMed

Frankel S. Study of the Food and Drug Administration files on Propecia: dosages, side effects, and recommendations. Arch Dermatol. 1999;135(3):257‐258. doi:10.1001/archderm.135.3.257 | PubMed

[⚠️ By Merck medical director] Kaufman KD. Finasteride, 1 mg (Propecia), is the optimal dose for the treatment of men with male pattern hair loss. Arch Dermatol. 1999;135(8):989‐990. doi:10.1001/archderm.135.8.989 | PubMed

[⚠️ By Merck-sponsored author] Roberts JL. Finasteride in a 1-mg dose is safe and effective. Arch Dermatol. 1999;135(8):990. doi:10.1001/archderm.135.8.990 | PubMed

Hudson PB, Boake R, Trachtenberg J, et al. Efficacy of finasteride is maintained in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia treated for 5 years. The North American Finasteride Study Group. Urology. 1999;53(4):690-695. doi:10.1016/s0090-4295(98)00666-9

🐀 Kokate TG, Banks MK, Magee T, Yamaguchi S, Rogawski MA. Finasteride, a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, blocks the anticonvulsant activity of progesterone in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Feb;288(2):679-84. | PubMed | Journal site

[⚠️ Funded by Merck] Leyden J, Dunlap F, Miller B, et al. Finasteride in the treatment of men with frontal male pattern hair loss. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999 Jun;40(6 Pt 1):930–7. doi:10.1016/s0190-9622(99)70081-2 | PubMed

McClellan KJ, Markham A. Finasteride: a review of its use in male pattern hair loss. Drugs. 1999;57(1):111-126. doi:10.2165/00003495-199957010-00014 | PubMed

O’Donnell L, Pratis K, Stanton PG, Robertson DM, McLachlan RI. Testosterone-dependent restoration of spermatogenesis in adult rats is impaired by a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor. J Androl. 1999 Jan-Feb;20(1):109-17. PubMed

[⚠️ Funded by Merck] Overstreet JW, Fuh VL, Gould J, et al. Chronic treatment with finasteride daily does not affect spermatogenesis or semen production in young men. J Urol. 1999;162(4):1295–1300. PubMed

[Comment] Freidlin V, Ko HS, Wilkin JK. Re: chronic treatment with finasteride daily does not affect spermatogenesis or semen production in young men. J Urol. 2000;164(4):1319–1320. PubMed

Rhodes PR, Krogh RH, Bruskewitz RC. Impact of drug therapy on benign prostatic hyperplasia-specific quality of life. Urology. 1999;53(6):1090-1098. doi:10.1016/s0090-4295(99)00041-2

[⚠️ Funded by Merck] Roberts JL, Fiedler V, Imperato-McGinley J, et al. Clinical dose ranging studies with finasteride, a type 2 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, in men with male pattern hair loss. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999;41(4):555–563. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(99)80052-8 | PubMed

1998

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Debruyne FM, Jardin A, Colloi D, et al. Sustained-release alfuzosin, finasteride and the combination of both in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. European ALFIN Study Group. Eur Urol. 1998;34(3):169-175. doi:10.1159/000019706

Gisleskog PO, Hermann D, Hammarlund-Udenaes M, Karlsson MO. A model for the turnover of dihydrotestosterone in the presence of the irreversible 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors GI198745 and finasteride. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1998;64(6):636–647. doi:10.1016/S0009-9236(98)90054-6 | PubMed

🐀 Huynh H, Seyam RM, Brock GB. Reduction of ventral prostate weight by finasteride is associated with suppression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-I receptor genes and with an increase in IGF binding protein 3. Cancer Res. 1998;58(2):215-218. PubMed

🐀 Kamolpatana K, Johnston SD, Hardy SK, Castner S. Effect of finasteride on serum concentrations of dihydrotestosterone and testosterone in three clinically normal sexually intact adult male dogs. Am J Vet Res. 1998;59(6):762-764. PubMed

[⚠️ Funded by Merck] Kaufman KD, Olsen EA, Whiting D, et al. Finasteride in the treatment of men with androgenetic alopecia. Finasteride Male Pattern Hair Loss Study Group. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998 Oct;39(4 Pt 1):578-89. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(98)70007-6 | PubMed

[⚠️ Funded by Merck] Lepor H, Williford WO, Barry MJ, Haakenson C, Jones K. The impact of medical therapy on bother due to symptoms, quality of life and global outcome, and factors predicting response. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Study Group. J Urol. 1998 Oct;160(4):1358-67. PubMed

O’Connor JC, Cook JC, Slone TW, Makovec GT, Frame SR, Davis LG. An ongoing validation of a Tier I screening battery for detecting endocrine-active compounds (EACs). Toxicol Sci. 1998 Nov;46(1):45-60. doi:10.1006/toxs.1998.2550 | PubMed

Uygur MC, Arik AI, Altuğ U, Erol D. Effects of the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride on serum levels of gonadal, adrenal, and hypophyseal hormones and its clinical significance: a prospective clinical study. Steroids. 1998;63(4):208-213. doi:10.1016/s0039-128x(98)00005-1

Uygur MC, Gür E, Arik AI, Altuğ U, Erol D. Erectile dysfunction following treatments of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective study. Andrologia. 1998;30(1):5-10. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0272.1998.tb01375.x

1997

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Amichai B, Grunwald MH, Sobel R. 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors–a new hope in dermatology? Int J Dermatol. 1997 Mar;36(3):182-4. doi:10.1046/j.1365-4362.1997.00191.x | PubMed

Carlin BI, Seftel AD, Resnick MI, Findlay J. Finasteride induced gynecomastia. J Urol. 1997 Aug;158(2):547. PubMed

Clegg ED, Cook JC, Chapin RE, Foster PMD, Daston GP. Leydig cell hyperplasia and adenoma formation: Mechanisms and relevance to humans. Reproductive Toxicology. 1997;11(1):107-121. doi:10.1016/S0890-6238(96)00203-1 | PubMed

Haan J, Hollander JM, van Duinen SG, Saxena PR, Wintzen AR. Reversible severe myopathy during treatment with finasteride. Muscle Nerve. 1997 Apr;20(4):502-4. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4598(199704)20:4%3C502::AID-MUS15%3E3.0.CO;2-%23 | PubMed

Habib FK, Ross M, Tate R, Chisholm GD. Differential effect of finasteride on the tissue androgen concentrations in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1997;46(2):137–144. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2265.1997.950908.x

🐀 Iguer-Ouada M, Verstegen JP. Effect of finasteride (Proscar MSD) on seminal composition, prostate function and fertility in male dogs. J Reprod Fertil Suppl. 1997;51:139-149. https://europepmc.org/article/MED/9404280

Imperato-McGinley J. 5 alpha-reductase-2 deficiency. Curr Ther Endocrinol Metab. 1997;6:384–387. PubMed

Martínez Sarmiento M, Cuñat Albert E, López Alcina E, Pontones Moreno JL, Sanz Chinesta S, Jiménez Cruz JF. [Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with finasteride. Results after 7 years of follow-up]. Actas Urol Esp. 1997;21(2):105-110. PubMed

🐀 Prahalada S, Tarantal AF, Harris GS, et al. Effects of finasteride, a type 2 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, on fetal development in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Teratology. 1997;55(2):119-131. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9926(199702)55:2<119::AID-TERA1>3.0.CO;2-Z

Tenover JL, Pagano GA, Morton AS, Liss CL, Byrnes CA. Efficacy and tolerability of finasteride in symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia: a primary care study. Primary Care Investigator Study Group. Clin Ther. 1997;19(2):243-258. doi:10.1016/s0149-2918(97)80113-0 | PubMed

1996

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Chueh SC, Yu HJ, Chiu TY, Huang CY, Lai MK. Treating benign prostatic hyperplasia with finasteride in Chinese men: one-year experience. J Formos Med Assoc. 1996;95(8):650-652. PubMed

Fleshner NE, Fair WR. Anti-androgenic effects of combination finasteride plus flutamide in patients with prostatic carcinoma. Br J Urol. 1996;78(6):907-910. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410x.1996.29918.x

Girman CJ, Kolman C, Liss CL, Bolognese JA, Binkowitz BS, Stoner E. Effects of finasteride on health-related quality of life in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Finasteride Study Group. Prostate. 1996;29(2):83-90. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0045(199608)29:2<83::AID-PROS3>3.0.CO;2-I

[Correspondence] Green L, Wysowski DK, Fourcroy JL. Gynecomastia and breast cancer during finasteride therapy. N Engl J Med. 1996 Sep 12;335(11):823. doi:10.1056/NEJM199609123351116 | PubMed

Hill M, Petrik R, Hampl R, Stárka L. The concentrations of the endogenous C19-steroids in hyperplastic prostatic tissue and the effect of finasteride treatment. Horm Metab Res. 1996;28(10):562-564. doi:10.1055/s-2007-979853 | PubMed

Kaplan SA, Olsson CA. Patient satisfaction with finasteride in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Clin Ther. 1996;18(1):73–83. doi:10.1016/s0149-2918(96)80180-9 | PubMed

[⚠️ Funded by Merck] Lepor H, Williford WO, Barry MJ, et al. The efficacy of terazosin, finasteride, or both in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1996;335(8):533-539. doi:10.1056/NEJM199608223350801 | PubMed

Nickel JC, Fradet Y, Boake RC, et al. Efficacy and safety of finasteride therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia: results of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (the PROSPECT study). PROscar Safety Plus Efficacy Canadian Two year Study. CMAJ. 1996;155(9):1251-1259. PubMed

Pytel’ IA, Vinarov AZ. [Proscar (finasteride, MSD) in the treatment of patients with prostatic hyperplasia]. Urol Nefrol (Mosk). 1996;(4):25-27. PubMed

Rittmaster RS, Norman RW, Thomas LN, Rowden G. Evidence for atrophy and apoptosis in the prostates of men given finasteride. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996;81(2):814–819. doi:10.1210/jcem.81.2.8636309 | PubMed

Steiner JF. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of finasteride. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1996;30(1):16-27. doi:10.2165/00003088-199630010-00002 | PubMed

Tian G. In vivo time-dependent inhibition of human steroid 5 alpha-reductase by finasteride. J Pharm Sci. 1996;85(1):106–111. doi:10.1021/js950100g | PubMed

Tveter KJ, Beisland HO, Andersen JT, et al. [Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with Proscar (finasteride). Results of a 10-year Scandinavian study]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1996;116(27):3226-3230. PubMed

[⚠️ Funded by Merck] 🐀 Wright AS, Thomas LN, Douglas RC, Lazier CB, Rittmaster RS. Relative potency of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in preventing atrophy and apoptosis in the prostate of the castrated rat. J Clin Invest. 1996;98(11):2558–2563. doi:10.1172/JCI119074 | PubMed

Yoshida O, Oishi K, Okada Y, et al. Effect of long-term administration of finasteride (MK-906), an inhibitor of 5 alpha-reductase, in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Hinyokika Kiyo. 1996 Apr;42(4):323-31. PubMedFull text at KURENAI

1995

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Byrnes CA, Morton AS, Liss CL, Lippert MC, Gillenwater JY. Efficacy, tolerability, and effect on health-related quality of life of finasteride versus placebo in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia: a community based study. On behalf of Community Based Study of Proscar (CUSP) Investigators. Clin Ther. 1995;17(5):956-969. doi:10.1016/0149-2918(95)80073-5 | PubMed

Cunningham GR, Hirshkowitz M. Inhibition of steroid 5 alpha-reductase with finasteride: sleep-related erections, potency, and libido in healthy men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995;80(6):1934-1940. doi:10.1210/jcem.80.6.7775644

Fleshner NE, Trachtenberg J. Combination finasteride and flutamide in advanced carcinoma of the prostate: effective therapy with minimal side effects. J Urol. 1995;154(5):1642-1645; discussion 1645-6. PubMed

Frankel S. Analyzing finasteride data. Neurourol Urodyn. 1995;14(6):619-24. doi:10.1002/nau.1930140603 | PubMed

Freeman DA, Gocze PM, Porpaczy Z. Finasteride blocks progesterone synthesis in MA-10 Leydig tumor cells. Endocrinology. 1993 Oct;133(4):1915-7. doi:10.1210/endo.133.4.8404636 | PubMed

Geller J. Five-year follow-up of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia treated with finasteride. Eur Urol. 1995;27(4):267-273. doi:10.1159/000475179

[⚠️ Funded by Merck] 📚 Gormley GJ. Finasteride: a clinical review. Biomed Pharmacother. 1995;49(7-8):319-324. doi:10.1016/0753-3322(96)82658-8

McConnell JD. Benign prostatic hyperplasia. Hormonal treatment. Urol Clin North Am. 1995;22(2):387-400. PubMed

McConnell JD, Goldwasser B, Marberger M. BPH: What really works? Contemp Urol. 1995 Apr;7(4):76-80, 82, 84 passim. PubMed

Moore E, Bracken B, Bremner W, et al. Proscar: five-year experience. Eur Urol. 1995;28(4):304-309. doi:10.1159/000475071

🐀 Prentice DE, Meikle AW. A review of drug-induced Leydig cell hyperplasia and neoplasia in the rat and some comparisons with man. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1995 Jul;14(7):562-72. doi:10.1177/096032719501400703 | PubMed

🐀 Rittmaster RS, Manning AP, Wright AS, et al. Evidence for atrophy and apoptosis in the ventral prostate of rats given the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride. Endocrinology. 1995;136(2):741–748. doi:10.1210/endo.136.2.7835306 | PubMed

Wu TT, Lee YH, Jiaan BP, Huang JK. The efficacy of finasteride in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei). 1995;56(6):399-403. PubMed

Yu HJ, Chiu TY, Lai MK. Therapeutic effects of finasteride in benign prostatic hyperplasia: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. J Formos Med Assoc. 1995;94(1-2):37-41. PubMed

1994

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🐀 Laroque PA, Prahalada S, Gordon LR, et al. Effects of chronic oral administration of a selective 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, on the dog prostate. Prostate. 1994;24(2):93–100. doi:10.1002/pros.2990240207

Moghetti P, Castello R, Magnani CM, et al. Clinical and hormonal effects of the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride in idiopathic hirsutism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994 Oct;79(4):1115-21. doi:10.1210/jcem.79.4.7962284 | PubMed

🐀 Prahalada S, Majka JA, Soper KA, et al. Leydig cell hyperplasia and adenomas in mice treated with finasteride, a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor: a possible mechanism. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1994;22(2):211-219. doi:10.1006/faat.1994.1025 | PubMed

Rittmaster RS. Finasteride. N Engl J Med. 1994;330(2):120–125. doi:10.1056/NEJM199401133300208 | PubMed

[⚠️ Funded by Merck] Rittmaster RS, Antonian L, New MI, Stoner E. Effect of finasteride on adrenal steroidogenesis in men. J Androl. 1994;15(4):298–301. doi:10.1002/j.1939-4640.1994.tb00453.x | PubMed

1993

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The Finasteride Study Group. Finasteride (MK-906) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate. 1993;22(4):291-9. doi:10.1002/pros.2990220403 | PubMed

Fleshner NE, Trachtenberg J. Treatment of advanced prostate cancer with the combination of finasteride plus flutamide: early results. Eur Urol. 1993;24(Suppl 2):106-12. doi:10.1159/000474400 | PubMed

Kirby RS, Vale J, Bryan J, Holmes K, Webb JA. Long-term urodynamic effects of finasteride in benign prostatic hyperplasia: a pilot study. Eur Urol. 1993;24(1):20-6. doi:10.1159/000474256 | PubMed

🐀 Lephart ED, Husmann DA. Altered brain and pituitary androgen metabolism by prenatal, perinatal or pre- and postnatal finasteride, flutamide or dihydrotestosterone treatment in juvenile male rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1993;17(6):991-1003. doi:10.1016/0278-5846(93)90026-o | PubMed

Peters DH, Sorkin EM. Finasteride. A review of its potential in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Drugs. 1993;46(1):177-208. doi:10.2165/00003495-199346010-00010 | PubMed

Steiner JF. Finasteride: a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor. Clin Pharm. 1993;12(1):15-23. PubMed

Sudduth SL, Koronkowski MJ. Finasteride: the first 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor. Pharmacotherapy, 1993;13(4):309-25; discussion 325-9. doi:10.1002/j.1875-9114.1993.tb02739.x | PubMed

1992

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🐀 Diani AR, Mulholland MJ, Shull KL, et al. Hair growth effects of oral administration of finasteride, a steroid 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, alone and in combination with topical minoxidil in the balding stumptail macaque. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992 Feb;74(2):345-50. doi:10.1210/jcem.74.2.1309834 | PubMed

Geller J, Sionit L. Castration-like effects on the human prostate of a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. J Cell Biochem Suppl. 1992;16H:109-12. doi:10.1002/jcb.240501225 | PubMed

[⚠️ Funded by Merck] Gormley GJ, Stoner E, Bruskewitz RC, et al. The effect of finasteride in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Finasteride Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1992;327(17):1185-1191. doi:10.1056/NEJM199210223271701 | PubMed

[Comment] Blumenstein BA. Finasteride for benign prostatic hyperplasia. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(6):443. PubMed

📚 Hasinski S, Miller JL, Rose LI. Finasteride for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Am Fam Physician. 1992 Nov;46(5):1511-4. PubMed

[Comment] Anand A. Thoughts on finasteride for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Am Fam Physician. 1993 Sep 15;48(4):582, 588. PubMed

Stoner E. The clinical effects of a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, on benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Finasteride Study Group. J Urol. 1992 May;147(5):1298-302. doi:10.1016/s0022-5347(17)37547-x | PubMed

1991

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🐀 Cukierski MA, Sina JL, Prahalada S, et al. Decreased fertility in male rats administered the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, is due to deficits in copulatory plug formation. Reprod Toxicol. 1991;5(4):353-362. doi:10.1016/0890-6238(91)90094-v

🐀 Rittmaster RS, Magor KE, Manning AP, Norman RW, Lazier CB. Differential effect of 5 alpha-reductase inhibition and castration on androgen-regulated gene expression in rat prostate. Mol Endocrinol. 1991;5(7):1023–1029. doi:10.1210/mend-5-7-1023 | PubMed

Vermeulen A, Giagulli VA, De Schepper P, Buntinx A. Hormonal effects of a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor (finasteride) on hormonal levels in normal men and in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Eur Urol. 1991;20 Suppl 1:82-86. doi:10.1159/000471752 | PubMed

🐀 Wise LD, Minsker DH, Cukierski MA, et al. Reversible decreases of fertility in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated orally with finasteride, a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor. Reprod Toxicol. 1991;5(4):337-346. doi:10.1016/0890-6238(91)90092-t

1990

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[⚠️ Funded by Merck] Gormley GJ, Stoner E, Rittmaster RS, et al. Effects of finasteride (MK-906), a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, on circulating androgens in male volunteers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990;70(4):1136–1141. doi:10.1210/jcem-70-4-1136 | PubMed

Imperato-McGinley J, Shackleton C, Orlic S, Stoner E. C19 and C21 5 beta/5 alpha metabolite ratios in subjects treated with the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride: comparison of male pseudohermaphrodites with inherited 5 alpha-reductase deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990;70(3):777-782. doi:10.1210/jcem-70-3-777 | PubMed

McConnell JD. Androgen ablation and blockade in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urol Clin North Am. 1990;17(3):661-670. PubMed

[⚠️ Funded by Merck] Stoner E. The clinical development of a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1990;37(3):375–378. doi:10.1016/0960-0760(90)90487-6 | PubMed

1980s

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🐀 Brooks JR, Baptista EM, Berman C, et al. Response of rat ventral prostate to a new and novel 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor. Endocrinology. 1981;109(3):830‐836. doi:10.1210/endo-109-3-830 | PubMed

🐀 Brooks JR, Berman C, Hichens M, Primka RL, Reynolds GF, Rasmusson GH. Biological activities of a new steroidal inhibitor of delta 4-5 alpha-reductase. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1982;169(1):67-73. PubMed

🐀 Erskine MS. Effects of an anti-androgen and 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors on estrus duration in the cycling female rat. Physiol Behav. 1983;30(4):519-524. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(83)90214-7 | PubMed

🐀 George FW, Johnson L, Wilson JD. The effect of a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor on androgen physiology in the immature male rat. Endocrinology. 1989;125(5):2434-2438. doi:10.1210/endo-125-5-2434 | PubMed

🐀 Imperato-McGinley J, Binienda Z, Arthur A, Mininberg DT, Vaughan ED Jr, Quimby FW. The development of a male pseudohermaphroditic rat using an inhibitor of the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase. Endocrinology. 1985;116(2):807‐812. doi:10.1210/endo-116-2-807 | PubMed

🐀 Kadohama N, Wakisaka M, Kim U, Karr JP, Murphy GP, Sandberg AA. Retardation of prostate tumor progression in the Noble rat by 4-methyl-4-aza-steroidal inhibitors of 5 alpha-reductase. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1985;74(2):475-486. PubMed

Liang T, Rasmusson GH, Brooks JR. 12. Androgens: Pharmacodynamics and antagonists. Biochemical and biological studies with 4-aza-steroidal 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. J Steroid Biochem. 1983;19(1A):385‐390. doi:10.1016/s0022-4731(83)80051-x | PubMed

Peterson RE, Imperato-McGinley J, Gautier T, Shackleton C. Urinary steroid metabolites in subjects with male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5 alpha-reductase deficiency. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1985 Jul;23(1):43-53. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.1985.tb00181.x | PubMed

[⚠️ Funded by Merck] Rittmaster RS, Stoner E, Thompson DL, Nance D, Lasseter KC. Effect of MK-906, a specific 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, on serum androgens and androgen conjugates in normal men. J Androl. 1989 Jul-Aug;10(4):259-62. doi:10.1002/j.1939-4640.1989.tb00097.x | PubMed

🐀 Wenderoth UK, George FW, Wilson JD. The effect of a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor on androgen-mediated growth of the dog prostate. Endocrinology. 1983;113(2):569-573. doi:10.1210/endo-113-2-569 | PubMed

1970s

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Imperato-McGinley J, Guerrero L, Gautier T, Peterson RE. Steroid 5alpha-reductase deficiency in man: an inherited form of male pseudohermaphroditism. Science. 1974;186(4170):1213‐1215. doi:10.1126/science.186.4170.1213 | PubMed

Imperato-McGinley J, Peterson RE, Gautier T, Sturla E. Androgens and the evolution of male-gender identity among male pseudohermaphrodites with 5alpha-reductase deficiency. N Engl J Med. 1979 May 31;300(22):1233-7. doi:10.1056/NEJM197905313002201PubMed

Imperato-McGinley J, Peterson RE, Gautier T, Sturla E. Male pseudohermaphroditism secondary to 5 alpha-reductase deficiency—a model for the role of androgens in both the development of the male phenotype and the evolution of a male gender identity. J Steroid Biochem. 1979 Jul;11(1B):637-45. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(79)90093-1 | PubMed

Peterson RE, Imperato-McGinley J, Gautier T, Sturla E. Male pseudohermaphroditism due to steroid 5-alpha-reductase deficiency. Am J Med. 1977 Feb;62(2):170-91. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(77)90313-8 | PubMed

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