Related research: Special topics

5-alpha reductase deficiency

Cheng T, Wang H, Han B, et al. Identification of three novel SRD5A2 mutations in Chinese patients with 5α-reductase 2 deficiency. Asian J Androl. 2019. doi:10.4103/aja.aja_113_18PubMed

Imperato-McGinley J. 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency and complete androgen insensitivity: lessons from nature. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-0621-8_8PubMed

Imperato-McGinley J, Guerrero L, Gautier T, Peterson RE. Steroid 5alpha-reductase deficiency in man: an inherited form of male pseudohermaphroditism. Science. 1974. doi:10.1126/science.186.4170.1213PubMed

Kang HJ, Imperato-McGinley J, Zhu YS, Rosenwaks Z. The effect of 5α-reductase-2 deficiency on human fertility. Fertil Steril. 2014. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.11.128PubMed

Kumar G, Barboza-Meca JJ. 5 Alpha Reductase Deficiency. StatPearls Publishing. 2020 Jan. NCBI Bookshelf

PubMed search for MeSH term ‘3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase / deficiency

Robitaille J, Langlois VS. Consequences of steroid-5α-reductase deficiency and inhibition in vertebrates. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2020. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2020.113400PubMed

Sasaki G, Ishii T, Hori N, Amano N, Homma K, Sato S, Hasegawa T. Effects of pre- and post-pubertal dihydrotestosterone treatment on penile length in 5α-reductase type 2 deficiency. Endocr J. 2019 Sep 28. doi:10.1507/endocrj.EJ19-0111 • PubMed

Androgen receptors

See also: Related research: Genetics

Bauman TM, Sehgal PD, Johnson KA, et al. Finasteride treatment alters tissue specific androgen receptor expression in prostate tissues. Prostate. 2014. doi:10.1002/pros.22810 • PubMed

Brinkmann AO, Faber PW, van Rooij HC, et al. The human androgen receptor: domain structure, genomic organization and regulation of expression. J Steroid Biochem. 1989. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(89)90098-8PubMed

Cauci S, Chiriacò G, Cecchin E, et al. Androgen Receptor (AR) Gene (CAG)n and (GGN)n Length Polymorphisms and Symptoms in Young Males With Long-Lasting Adverse Effects After Finasteride Use Against Androgenic Alopecia. Sex Med. 2017. doi:10.1016/j.esxm.2016.11.001PubMed

Cecchin E, De Mattia E, Mazzon G, Cauci S, Trombetta C, Toffoli G. A pharmacogenetic survey of androgen receptor (CAG)n and (GGN)n polymorphisms in patients experiencing long term side effects after finasteride discontinuation. Int J Biol Markers. 2014. doi:10.5301/jbm.5000095PubMed

Cherian MT, Wilson EM, Shapiro DJ. A competitive inhibitor that reduces recruitment of androgen receptor to androgen-responsive genes. J Biol Chem. 2012 Jul 6. doi:10.1074/jbc.M112.344671PubMedFull text

Davey RA, Grossmann M. Androgen Receptor Structure, Function and Biology: From Bench to Bedside. Clin Biochem Rev. 2016 Feb. PubMedPMC full text

Ellis JA, Stebbing M, Harrap SB. Polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene is associated with male pattern baldness. J Invest Dermatol. 2001 Mar. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.2001.01261.xPubMed

Ghassemi M, Ghaffarpour GH, Ghods S. The effect of GGC and CAG repeat polymorphisms on the androgen receptor gene in response to finasteride therapy in men with androgenetic alopecia. J Res Med Sci. 2019. doi:10.4103/jrms.JRMS_27_19PubMed

Gibson DA, Saunders PTK, McEwan IJ. Androgens and androgen receptor: Above and beyond. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2018.02.013PubMed

González-Cadavid N, Vernet D, Fuentes Navarro A, Rodríguez JA, Swerdloff RS, Rajfer J. Up-regulation of the levels of androgen receptor and its mRNA by androgens in smooth-muscle cells from rat penis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1993. doi:10.1016/0303-7207(93)90155-d • PubMed

Grigorova M, Punab M, Kahre T, et al. The number of CAG and GGN triplet repeats in the Androgen Receptor gene exert combinatorial effect on hormonal and sperm parameters in young men. Andrology. 2017. doi:10.1111/andr.12344PubMed

Hillmer AM, Hanneken S, Ritzmann S, et al. Genetic variation in the human androgen receptor gene is the major determinant of common early-onset androgenetic alopecia. Am J Hum Genet. 2005 Jul. doi:10.1086/431425PMC full text

Hunter I, Hay CW, Esswein B, Watt K, McEwan IJ. Tissue control of androgen action: The ups and downs of androgen receptor expression. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2017.08.002PubMed

Keene S, Goren A. Therapeutic hotline. Genetic variations in the androgen receptor gene and finasteride response in women with androgenetic alopecia mediated by epigenetics. Dermatol Ther. 2011. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8019.2011.01407.xPubMed

Levy-Nissenbaum E, Bar-Natan M, Frydman M, Pras E. Confirmation of the association between male pattern baldness and the androgen receptor gene. Eur J Dermatol. 2005 Sep-Oct. PubMed

McEwan IJ, Brinkmann AO. Androgen Physiology: Receptor and Metabolic Disorders. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, et al., eds. Endotext. South Dartmouth (MA):, Inc.; 2016 Jun 12. Endotext site (free; registration required) • PubMed

Narayanan R, Coss CC, Dalton JT. Development of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2017.06.013PubMed

Takayama KI. The biological and clinical advances of androgen receptor function in age-related diseases and cancer [Review]. Endocr J. 2017. doi:10.1507/endocrj.EJ17-0328PubMed

Tirabassi G, Corona G, Biagioli A, et al. Influence of androgen receptor CAG polymorphism on sexual function recovery after testosterone therapy in late-onset hypogonadism. J Sex Med. 2015. doi:10.1111/jsm.12790PubMed

Tirabassi G, Corona G, Falzetti S, Delli Muti N, Maggi M, Balercia G. Influence of Androgen Receptor Gene CAG and GGC Polymorphisms on Male Sexual Function: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int J Endocrinol. 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/5083569PubMed

Tut TG, Ghadessy FJ, Trifiro MA, Pinsky L, Yong EL. Long polyglutamine tracts in the androgen receptor are associated with reduced trans-activation, impaired sperm production, and male infertility. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Nov. doi:10.1210/jcem.82.11.4385PubMed

Xiao Q, Wang L, Supekar S, Shen T, Liu H, Ye F, Huang J, Fan H, Wei Z, Zhang C. Structure of human steroid 5α-reductase 2 with the anti-androgen drug finasteride. Nat Commun. 2020 Oct 27. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19249-zPubMed

Yamazaki M, Sato A, Toyoshima KE, et al. Polymorphic CAG repeat numbers in the androgen receptor gene of female pattern hair loss patients. J Dermatol. 2011 Jul. doi:10.1111/j.1346-8138.2010.01060.xPubMed

Zhuo FL, Xu W, Wang L, Wu Y, Xu ZL, Zhao JY. Androgen receptor gene polymorphisms and risk for androgenetic alopecia: a meta-analysis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2012. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2230.2011.04186.xPubMed


Low LA, Mummery C, Berridge BR, Austin CP, Tagle DA. Organs-on-chips: into the next decade. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2021 May. doi:10.1038/s41573-020-0079-3PubMed

Epigenetics of adverse drug reactions

See also: Isotretinoin

Becker E, Bengs S, Aluri S, et al. Large-Scale Integrative Analysis of Epigenetic Modifications Induced by Isotretinoin, Doxycycline and Metronidazole in Murine Colonic Intestinal Epithelial Cells. Epigenomes. 2017. doi:10.3390/epigenomes1030024

Csoka AB, Szyf M. Epigenetic side-effects of common pharmaceuticals: a potential new field in medicine and pharmacology. Med Hypotheses. 2009 Nov. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2008.10.039PubMed

Eckstein M, Rea M, Fondufe-Mittendorf YN. Transient and permanent changes in DNA methylation patterns in inorganic arsenic-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017 Sep 15. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2017.03.017 • PubMed • PMC full text

Fisel P, Schaeffeler E, Schwab M. DNA Methylation of ADME Genes. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2016. doi:10.1002/cpt.343PubMed

Jiang Y, Chen H, Han L, Xie X, Zheng Y, Lai W. Altered Gene Expression in Acne Vulgaris Patients Treated by Oral Isotretinoin: A Preliminary Study. Pharmgenomics Pers Med. 2020 Sep 15. doi:10.2147/PGPM.S250969. PubMedPMC full text

Kacevska M, Ivanov M, Ingelman-Sundberg M. Perspectives on epigenetics and its relevance to adverse drug reactions. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011. doi:10.1038/clpt.2011.21PubMed

Kanherkar RR, Getachew B, Ben-Sheetrit J, Varma S, Heinbockel T, Tizabi Y, Csoka AB. The Effect of Citalopram on Genome-Wide DNA Methylation of Human Cells. Int J Genomics. 2018 Jul 25. doi:10.1155/2018/8929057PubMedPMC full text

Nelson AM, Zhao W, Gilliland KL, Zaenglein AL, Liu W, Thiboutot DM. Early gene changes induced by isotretinoin in the skin provide clues to its mechanism of action. Dermatoendocrinol. 2009 Mar. doi:10.4161/derm.1.2.8107PubMedPMC full text

Nelson AM, Zhao W, Gilliland KL, Zaenglein AL, Liu W, Thiboutot DM. Temporal changes in gene expression in the skin of patients treated with isotretinoin provide insight into its mechanism of action. Dermatoendocrinol. 2009 May. doi:10.4161/derm.1.3.8258 • PubMed • PMC full text


See also: Epigenetics of adverse drug reactions

Becker E, Bengs S, Aluri S, et al. Large-Scale Integrative Analysis of Epigenetic Modifications Induced by Isotretinoin, Doxycycline and Metronidazole in Murine Colonic Intestinal Epithelial Cells. Epigenomes. 2017. doi:10.3390/epigenomes1030024

Boudou P, Soliman H, Chivot M, et al. Effect of oral isotretinoin treatment on skin androgen receptor levels in male acneic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Apr. doi:10.1210/jcem.80.4.7714084PubMed

Jiang Y, Chen H, Han L, Xie X, Zheng Y, Lai W. Altered Gene Expression in Acne Vulgaris Patients Treated by Oral Isotretinoin: A Preliminary Study. Pharmgenomics Pers Med. 2020 Sep 15. doi:10.2147/PGPM.S250969. PubMedPMC full text

Melnik BC. Apoptosis May Explain the Pharmacological Mode of Action and Adverse Effects of Isotretinoin, Including Teratogenicity. Acta Derm Venereol. 2017 Feb 8. doi:10.2340/00015555-2535PubMed

Nelson AM, Zhao W, Gilliland KL, Zaenglein AL, Liu W, Thiboutot DM. Early gene changes induced by isotretinoin in the skin provide clues to its mechanism of action. Dermatoendocrinol. 2009 Mar. doi:10.4161/derm.1.2.8107PubMedPMC full text

Nelson AM, Zhao W, Gilliland KL, Zaenglein AL, Liu W, Thiboutot DM. Temporal changes in gene expression in the skin of patients treated with isotretinoin provide insight into its mechanism of action. Dermatoendocrinol. 2009 May. doi:10.4161/derm.1.3.8258PubMedPMC full text


Borgo F, Macandog AD, Diviccaro S, et al. Alterations of gut microbiota composition in post-finasteride patients: a pilot study. J Endocrinol Invest. 2020 Sep 19. doi:10.1007/s40618-020-01424-0 • PubMed

Diviccaro S, Giatti S, Borgo F, et al. Treatment of male rats with finasteride, an inhibitor of 5alpha-reductase enzyme, induces long-lasting effects on depressive-like behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis, neuroinflammation and gut microbiota composition. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2019. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2018.09.021 • PubMed

Liu J, Lai L, Lin J, et al. Ranitidine and finasteride inhibit the synthesis and release of trimethylamine N-oxide and mitigates its cardiovascular and renal damage through modulating gut microbiota. Int J Biol Sci. 2020 Jan 14. doi:10.7150/ijbs.40934PubMed


Hsu CL, Liu JS, Lin AC, Yang CH, Chung WH, Wu WG. Minoxidil may suppress androgen receptor-related functions. Oncotarget. 2014 Apr 30. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.1886PubMedPMC full text

Mazen A. Topical Minoxidil 5% Induced Male Sexual Dysfunction. Indian Journal of Medical Research and Pharmaceutical Sciences [not indexed in PubMed]. 2017 May. doi:10.5281/zenodo.580856

Pekmezci E, Türkoğlu M. Minoxidil Acts as an Antiandrogen: A Study of 5α-reductase Type 2 Gene Expression in a Human Keratinocyte Cell Line. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 2017 Dec. PubMed

Penile imaging, anatomy, physiology and restoration

Abualruz AR, O’Malley R, Ponnatapura J, et al. MRI of common penile pathologies and penile prostheses. Abdom Radiol (NY). 2020 Sep. doi:10.1007/s00261-019-02080-6PubMed

Altun E. MR Imaging of the Penis and Urethra. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2019 Feb. doi:10.1016/j.mric.2018.09.006PubMed

Cozzi D, Verrone GB, Agostini S, et al. Acute penile trauma: imaging features in the emergency setting. Radiol Med. 2019 Dec. doi:10.1007/s11547-019-01065-1PubMed

Diallo D, Zaitouna M, Alsaid B, et al. The visceromotor and somatic afferent nerves of the penis. J Sex Med. 2015 May. doi:10.1111/jsm.12851PubMed

Goldstein AMB, Padma-Nathan H. The Microarchitecture of the Intracavernosal Smooth Muscle and the Cavernosal Fibrous Skeleton. J Urol. 1990 Nov 1. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(17)39677-5

Lefaucheur JP. Measurement of electrochemical conductance of penile skin using Sudoscan®: A new tool to assess neurogenic impotence. Neurophysiol Clin. 2017 Jun. doi:10.1016/j.neucli.2017.05.092PubMed

Lindquist CM, Nikolaidis P, Mittal PK, Miller FH. MRI of the penis. Abdom Radiol (NY). 2020 Jul. doi:10.1007/s00261-019-02301-yPubMed

Nakahara T, Narula J, Tijssen JGP, et al. 18F-Fluoride Positron Emission Tomographic Imaging of Penile Arteries and Erectile Dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Apr 2. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2018.10.076PubMed

Parmar M, Masterson JM, Masterson TA 3rd. The role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of Peyronie’s disease. Curr Opin Urol. 2020 May. doi:10.1097/MOU.0000000000000754PubMed

Schulster M, Bernie AM, Ramasamy R. The role of estradiol in male reproductive function. Asian J Androl. 2016 May-Jun. doi:10.4103/1008-682X.173932PubMedPMC full text

Shen ZJ, Zhou XL, Lu YL, Chen ZD. Effect of androgen deprivation on penile ultrastructure. Asian J Androl. 2003 Mar. PubMed

Shenoy-Bhangle A, Perez-Johnston R, Singh A. Penile imaging. Radiol Clin North Am. 2012 Nov. doi:10.1016/j.rcl.2012.08.009PubMed

Terrier JE, Tal R, Nelson CJ, Mulhall JP. Penile Sensory Changes After Plaque Incision and Grafting Surgery for Peyronie’s Disease. J Sex Med. 2018 Oct. doi:10.1016/j.jsxm.2018.07.020PubMed

Thornbury KD, Hollywood MA, Sergeant GP. Ion Channels and Intracellular Calcium Signalling in Corpus Cavernosum. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019. doi:10.1007/978-981-13-5895-1_7PubMed

Tu LH, Spektor M, Ferrante M, Mathur M. MRI of the Penis: Indications, Anatomy, and Pathology. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2020 Jan-Feb. doi:10.1067/j.cpradiol.2018.12.004PubMed

Waldinger MD, van Coevorden RS, Schweitzer DH, Georgiadis J. Penile anesthesia in Post SSRI Sexual Dysfunction (PSSD) responds to low-power laser irradiation: a case study and hypothesis about the role of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015 Apr 15. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.11.031PubMed

Wang Y, Wang Y, Cong R, et al. Restoration of erectile function by suppression of corporal apoptosis and oxidative stress with losartan in aged rats with erectile dysfunction. Andrology. 2020 May. doi:10.1111/andr.12757PubMed

Wiggins A, Farrell MR, Tsambarlis P, Levine LA. The Penile Sensitivity Ratio: A Novel Application of Biothesiometry to Assess Changes in Penile Sensitivity. J Sex Med. 2019 Mar. doi:10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.01.002PubMed


Al Dweik R, Stacey D, Kohen D, Yaya S. Factors affecting patient reporting of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2017. doi:10.1111/bcp.13159PubMed

Gordijn R, Teichert M, Nicolai MPJ, Elzevier HW, Guchelaar HJ. Adverse drug reactions on sexual functioning: a systematic review. Drug Discov Today. 2019 Mar. doi:10.1016/j.drudis.2019.01.012PubMed

Hazell L, Shakir SA. Under-reporting of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review. Drug Saf. 2006. doi:10.2165/00002018-200629050-00003PubMed

Inch J, Watson MC, Anakwe-Umeh S. Patient versus healthcare professional spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting: a systematic review. Drug Saf. 2012. doi:10.1007/bf03261977PubMed

Ioannidis JP, Lau J. Completeness of safety reporting in randomized trials: an evaluation of 7 medical areas. JAMA. 2001. doi:10.1001/jama.285.4.437PubMed

Lopez-Gonzalez E, Herdeiro MT, Figueiras A. Determinants of under-reporting of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review. Drug Saf. 2009. doi:10.2165/00002018-200932010-00002PubMed

Moore TJ. Finasteride and the Uncertainties of Establishing Harms. JAMA Dermatol. 2015 Jun. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.37PubMed

Nizzi MC. Should We Trust Patient-Reported Outcomes? AJOB Neurosci. 2021 Apr-Sep. doi:10.1080/21507740.2021.1904040PubMed

[Audio interview] Re: Adverse Event Reporting in Clinical Trials of Finasteride for Alopecia: Interview with SM Belknap and TJ Moore published by JAMA Dermatol. 2015 Apr 1. Journal site

Study in progress as of 2020: European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance. Suicide and suicidality after exposure to finasteride.

Post-SSRI sexual dysfunction

Healy D, Bahrick A, Bak M, et al. Diagnostic Criteria for Enduring Sexual Dysfunction after Treatment with Antidepressants, Finasteride and Isotretinoin. Int J Risk Saf Med. 2021 Oct 26. doi:10.3233/JRS-210023

Hellmann-Regen J, Uhlemann R, Regen F, et al. Direct inhibition of retinoic acid catabolism by fluoxetine. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2015 Sep. doi:10.1007/s00702-015-1407-3PubMed

See Medical Literature at UK PSSD Association.

Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens)

Agbabiaka TB, Pittler MH, Wider B, Ernst E. Serenoa repens (saw palmetto): a systematic review of adverse events. Drug Saf. 2009. DOIPubMed

Avins AL, Bent S, Staccone S, et al. A detailed safety assessment of a saw palmetto extract. Complement Ther Med. 2008 Jun. DOIPubMedPMC full text

Avins AL, Lee JY, Meyers CM, Barry MJ; CAMUS Study Group. Safety and toxicity of saw palmetto in the CAMUS trial. J Urol. 2013 Apr. DOIPubMedPMC full text

Gallo E, Maggini V, Lombardi N, et al. Serenoa repens induced erectile dysfunction: Underdiagnosis and phytovigilance. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2021 Nov 7. doi:10.1111/bcp.15129 • PubMed

Gammoudi R, Ameur K, Ouni B, et al. Fixed drug eruption to Serenoa repens: First case report and consideration of the use of herbal medicine. Dermatol Ther. 2020 Nov. DOIPubMed

Pais P, Villar A, Rull S. Determination of the potency of a novel saw palmetto supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE) for 5α-reductase isoform II inhibition using a cell-free in vitro test system. Res Rep Urol. 2016 Apr 21. DOIPubMedPMC full text

Sinclair RD, Mallari RS, Tate B. Sensitization to saw palmetto and minoxidil in separate topical extemporaneous treatments for androgenetic alopecia. Australas J Dermatol. 2002 Nov. DOIPubMed

Yeu E, Grostern R. Saw palmetto and intraoperative floppy-iris syndrome. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007 May. DOI • PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

Go to VEGF bibliography