Related research

Clinical endocrinology

Boehmer AL, Brinkmann AO, Nijman RM, et al. Phenotypic variation in a family with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome explained by differences in 5alpha dihydrotestosterone availability. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(3):1240–1246. doi:10.1210/jcem.86.3.7333 | PubMed

Karakas SE, Surampudi P. New Biomarkers to Evaluate Hyperandrogenemic Women and Hypogonadal Men. Adv Clin Chem. 2018;86:71–125. doi:10.1016/bs.acc.2018.06.001 | PubMed

Sasaki G, Ishii T, Hori N, Amano N, Homma K, Sato S, Hasegawa T. Effects of pre- and post-pubertal dihydrotestosterone treatment on penile length in 5α-reductase type 2 deficiency. Endocr J. 2019 Sep 28;66(9):837-842. doi:10.1507/endocrj.EJ19-0111 | PubMed


Katharopoulos E, Sauter K, Pandey AV, Flück CE. In silico and functional studies reveal novel loss-of-function variants of SRD5A2, but no variants explaining excess 5α-reductase activity. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Jun;190:263-272. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.01.017 | PubMed

Lin ZM, Fan DD, Jin S, Liu ZL, Niu YN. Methylated CpG dinucleotides in the 5-α reductase 2 gene may explain finasteride resistance in benign prostatic enlargement patients. Asian J Androl. 2020 Nov 20. doi:10.4103/aja.aja_63_20 | PubMed

Medline Plus: SRD5A2 gene.

Samtani R, Bajpai M, Ghosh PK, Saraswathy KN. A49T, R227Q and TA repeat polymorphism of steroid 5 alpha-reductase type II gene and Hypospadias risk in North Indian children. Meta Gene. 2014 Dec 11;3:1-7. doi:10.1016/j.mgene.2014.11.003 | PubMed

Sasaki G, Ishii T, Hori N, Amano N, Homma K, Sato S, Hasegawa T. Effects of pre- and post-pubertal dihydrotestosterone treatment on penile length in 5α-reductase type 2 deficiency. Endocr J. 2019 Sep 28;66(9):837-842. doi:10.1507/endocrj.EJ19-0111 | PubMed


Bali A, Jaggi AS. Multifunctional aspects of allopregnanolone in stress and related disorders. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Jan 3;48:64-78. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2013.09.005 | PubMed

Bortolato M, Devoto P, Roncada P, Frau R, Flore G, Saba P, Pistritto G, Soggiu A, Pisanu S, Zappala A, Ristaldi MS, Tattoli M, Cuomo V, Marrosu F, Barbaccia ML. Isolation rearing-induced reduction of brain 5α-reductase expression: relevance to dopaminergic impairments. Neuropharmacology. 2011 Jun;60(7-8):1301-8. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.01.013 | PubMed

Duong P, Tenkorang MAA, Trieu J, McCuiston C, Rybalchenko N, Cunningham RL. Neuroprotective and neurotoxic outcomes of androgens and estrogens in an oxidative stress environment. Biol Sex Differ. 2020 Mar 29;11(1):12. doi:10.1186/s13293-020-0283-1 | PubMed | Free PMC article

Frau R, Bini V, Pes R, Pillolla G, Saba P, Devoto P, Bortolato M. Inhibition of 17α-hydroxylase/C17,20 lyase reduces gating deficits consequent to dopaminergic activation. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014 Jan;39:204-13. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.09.014 | PubMed | Free PMC Article

Frau R, Mosher LJ, Bini V, et al. The neurosteroidogenic enzyme 5α-reductase modulates the role of D1 dopamine receptors in rat sensorimotor gating. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016;63:59–67. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.09.014 | PubMed

Giatti S, Diviccaro S, Falvo E, Miguel Garcia-Segura L, Melcangi RC. Physiopathological role of the enzymatic complex 5α-reductase and 3α/β-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase in the generation of progesterone and testosterone neuroactive metabolites. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2020;100836. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2020.100836 | PubMed

Giatti S, Diviccaro S, Serafini MM, et al. Sex differences in steroid levels and steroidogenesis in the nervous system: Physiopathological role. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2020;56:100804. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2019.100804PubMed

Giatti S, Garcia-Segura LM, Barreto GE, Melcangi RC. Neuroactive steroids, neurosteroidogenesis and sex. Prog Neurobiol. 2019;176:1–17. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2018.06.007 | PubMed

Hill RA, Pompolo S, Jones ME, Simpson ER, Boon WC. Estrogen deficiency leads to apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus of male mice. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004 Dec;27(4):466-76. doi:10.1016/j.mcn.2004.04.012 | PubMed

Kalakh S, Mouihate A. Enhanced remyelination during late pregnancy: involvement of the GABAergic system. Sci Rep. 2019 May 22;9(1):7728. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-44050-4 | PubMed | Free PMC article

Melcangi RC, Panzica GC. Allopregnanolone: state of the art. Prog Neurobiol. 2014 Feb;113:1-5. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2013.09.005 | PubMed

Melcangi RC, Riva MA, Fumagalli F, Magnaghi V, Racagni G, Martini L. Effect of progesterone, testosterone and their 5 alpha-reduced metabolites on GFAP gene expression in type 1 astrocytes. Brain Res. 1996;711(1-2):10-15. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(95)01302-4 | PubMed

Nasiri M, Nikolaou N, Parajes S, Krone NP, Valsamakis G, Mastorakos G, Hughes B, Taylor A, Bujalska IJ, Gathercole LL, Tomlinson JW. 5α-Reductase Type 2 Regulates Glucocorticoid Action and Metabolic Phenotype in Human Hepatocytes. Endocrinology. 2015 Aug;156(8):2863-71. doi:10.1210/en.2015-1149 | PubMed | Free PMC article

Panzica G, Melcangi RC. Neuroactive steroids and the new decade. J Neuroendocrinol. 2020 Jan;32(1):e12832. doi:10.1111/jne.12832 | PubMed

Sun YH, Gao X, Tang YJ, Xu CL, Wang LH. Androgens induce increases in intracellular calcium via a G protein-coupled receptor in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. J Androl. 2006 Sep-Oct;27(5):671-8. doi:10.2164/jandrol.106.000554 | PubMed

Tesone AJ, Regueira E, Canosa LF, Ceballos NR. 5α-Reductase, an enzyme regulating glucocorticoid action in the testis of Rhinella arenarum (Amphibia: Anura). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2012 May 1;176(3):500-6. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2012.01.004 | PubMed

Pharmacology & biochemistry

Bortolato M, Frau R, Orrù M, Bourov Y, Marrosu F, Mereu G, Devoto P, Gessa GL. Antipsychotic-like properties of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Dec;33(13):3146-56. doi:10.1038/npp.2008.39 | PubMed

Bosse GD, Cadeddu R, Floris G, Farero RD, Vigato E, Lee SJ, Zhang T, Gaikwad NW, Keefe KA, Phillips PE, Bortolato M, Peterson RT. The 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride reduces opioid self-administration in animal models of opioid use disorder. J Clin Invest. 2021 Apr 13:143990. doi:10.1172/JCI143990 | PubMed

Han Y, Zhuang Q, Sun B, Lv W, Wang S, Xiao Q, Pang B, Zhou Y, Wang F, Chi P, Wang Q, Li Z, Zhu L, Li F, Deng D, Chiang YC, Li Z, Ren R. Crystal structure of steroid reductase SRD5A reveals conserved steroid reduction mechanism. Nat Commun. 2021 Jan 19;12(1):449. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-20675-2 | PubMed

Khantham C, Yooin W, Sringarm K, Sommano SR, Jiranusornkul S, Carmona FD, Nimlamool W, Jantrawut P, Rachtanapun P, Ruksiriwanich W. Effects on Steroid 5-Alpha Reductase Gene Expression of Thai Rice Bran Extracts and Molecular Dynamics Study on SRD5A2. Biology (Basel). 2021 Apr 11;10(4):319. doi:10.3390/biology10040319 | PubMed

Kim D, Cho H, Eggers R, Kim SK, Ryu CS, Kim YJ. Development of a Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry-Based Inhibition Assay for the Screening of Steroid 5-α Reductase in Human and Fish Cell Lines. Molecules. 2021 Feb 8;26(4):893. doi:10.3390/molecules26040893 | PubMed

Kudryashov NV, Ivanova EA, Kalinina TS, Shimshirt AA, Kurshin AA, Zhmurenko LA, Voronina TA. Antiexudative Effects of Finasteride and a New Pyrazolo[C]Pyridine Derivative GIZh-72 in Acetic Acid-Induced Experimental Peritonitis. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2020 Feb;168(4):453-456. doi:10.1007/s10517-020-04730-y | PubMed

Paba S, Frau R, Godar SC, Devoto P, Marrosu F, Bortolato M. Steroid 5α-reductase as a novel therapeutic target for schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Curr Pharm Des. 2011;17(2):151-67. doi:10.2174/138161211795049589 | PubMed

Peng HM, Valentín-Goyco J, Im SC, Han B, Liu J, Qiao J, Auchus RJ. Expression in Escherichia Coli, Purification, and Functional Reconstitution of Human Steroid 5α-Reductases. Endocrinology. 2020 Aug 1;161(8):bqaa117. doi:10.1210/endocr/bqaa117 | PubMed

Pharmacovigilance & methodology for detecting drug harms

Al Dweik R, Stacey D, Kohen D, Yaya S. Factors affecting patient reporting of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2017;83(4):875–883. doi:10.1111/bcp.13159 | PubMed

Gordijn R, Teichert M, Nicolai MPJ, Elzevier HW, Guchelaar HJ. Adverse drug reactions on sexual functioning: a systematic review. Drug Discov Today. 2019 Mar;24(3):890-897. doi:10.1016/j.drudis.2019.01.012 | PubMed

Hazell L, Shakir SA. Under-reporting of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review. Drug Saf. 2006;29(5):385-96. doi:10.2165/00002018-200629050-00003 | PubMed

Inch J, Watson MC, Anakwe-Umeh S. Patient versus healthcare professional spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting: a systematic review. Drug Saf. 2012;35(10):807–818. doi:10.1007/bf03261977 | PubMed

Ioannidis JP, Lau J. Completeness of safety reporting in randomized trials: an evaluation of 7 medical areas. JAMA. 2001;285(4):437–443. doi:10.1001/jama.285.4.437 | PubMed

Lopez-Gonzalez E, Herdeiro MT, Figueiras A. Determinants of under-reporting of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review. Drug Saf. 2009;32(1):19–31. doi:10.2165/00002018-200932010-00002 | PubMed

Moore TJ. Finasteride and the Uncertainties of Establishing Harms. JAMA Dermatol. 2015 Jun;151(6):585-6. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.37 | PubMed

[Audio interview] Re: Adverse Event Reporting in Clinical Trials of Finasteride for Alopecia: Interview with SM Belknap and TJ Moore published by JAMA Dermatol. 2015 Apr 1. Journal site

Study in progress as of 2020: European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance. Suicide and suicidality after exposure to finasteride.

Post-SSRI sexual dysfunction

See Medical Literature at UK PSSD Association.


Bartsch G, Rittmaster RS, Klocker H. Dihydrotestosterone and the concept of 5alpha-reductase inhibition in human benign prostatic hyperplasia. World J Urol. 2002 Apr;19(6):413-25. doi:10.1007/s00345-002-0248-5 | PubMed

Mizoguchi S, Mori K, Shin T, Wang Z, DeFranco DB, Yoshimura N, Mimata H. Effects of dutasteride in a rat model of chemically induced prostatic inflammation-Potential role of estrogen receptor β. Prostate. 2020 Dec;80(16):1413-1420. doi:10.1002/pros.24071 | PubMed