RESEARCH

Special topic: androgen receptors

See also: Related research: Genetics

Bauman TM, Sehgal PD, Johnson KA, et al. Finasteride treatment alters tissue specific androgen receptor expression in prostate tissues. Prostate. 2014. doi:10.1002/pros.22810 • PubMed

Brinkmann AO, Faber PW, van Rooij HC, et al. The human androgen receptor: domain structure, genomic organization and regulation of expression. J Steroid Biochem. 1989. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(89)90098-8PubMed

Cauci S, Chiriacò G, Cecchin E, et al. Androgen receptor (AR) gene (CAG)n and (GGN)n length polymorphisms and symptoms in young males with long-lasting adverse effects after finasteride use against androgenic alopecia. Sex Med. 2017. doi:10.1016/j.esxm.2016.11.001PubMed

Cecchin E, De Mattia E, Mazzon G, Cauci S, Trombetta C, Toffoli G. A pharmacogenetic survey of androgen receptor (CAG)n and (GGN)n polymorphisms in patients experiencing long term side effects after finasteride discontinuation. Int J Biol Markers. 2014. doi:10.5301/jbm.5000095PubMed

Cherian MT, Wilson EM, Shapiro DJ. A competitive inhibitor that reduces recruitment of androgen receptor to androgen-responsive genes. J Biol Chem. 2012 Jul 6. doi:10.1074/jbc.M112.344671PubMedFull text

Davey RA, Grossmann M. Androgen receptor structure, function and biology: from bench to bedside. Clin Biochem Rev. 2016 Feb. PubMedPMC full text

Ellis JA, Stebbing M, Harrap SB. Polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene is associated with male pattern baldness. J Invest Dermatol. 2001 Mar. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.2001.01261.xPubMed

Ghassemi M, Ghaffarpour GH, Ghods S. The effect of GGC and CAG repeat polymorphisms on the androgen receptor gene in response to finasteride therapy in men with androgenetic alopecia. J Res Med Sci. 2019. doi:10.4103/jrms.JRMS_27_19PubMed

Gibson DA, Saunders PTK, McEwan IJ. Androgens and androgen receptor: above and beyond. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2018.02.013PubMed

González-Cadavid N, Vernet D, Fuentes Navarro A, Rodríguez JA, Swerdloff RS, Rajfer J. Up-regulation of the levels of androgen receptor and its mRNA by androgens in smooth-muscle cells from rat penis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1993. doi:10.1016/0303-7207(93)90155-d • PubMed

Grigorova M, Punab M, Kahre T, et al. The number of CAG and GGN triplet repeats in the Androgen Receptor gene exert combinatorial effect on hormonal and sperm parameters in young men. Andrology. 2017. doi:10.1111/andr.12344PubMed

Hillmer AM, Hanneken S, Ritzmann S, et al. Genetic variation in the human androgen receptor gene is the major determinant of common early-onset androgenetic alopecia. Am J Hum Genet. 2005 Jul. doi:10.1086/431425PMC full text

Hunter I, Hay CW, Esswein B, Watt K, McEwan IJ. Tissue control of androgen action: the ups and downs of androgen receptor expression. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2017.08.002PubMed

Jin R, Forbes C, Miller NL, et al. Glucocorticoids are induced while dihydrotestosterone levels are suppressed in 5-alpha reductase inhibitor treated human benign prostate hyperplasia patients. Prostate. 2022. doi:10.1002/pros.24410PubMed

Keene S, Goren A. Therapeutic hotline. Genetic variations in the androgen receptor gene and finasteride response in women with androgenetic alopecia mediated by epigenetics. Dermatol Ther. 2011. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8019.2011.01407.xPubMed

Levy-Nissenbaum E, Bar-Natan M, Frydman M, Pras E. Confirmation of the association between male pattern baldness and the androgen receptor gene. Eur J Dermatol. 2005 Sep-Oct. PubMed

McEwan IJ, Brinkmann AO. Androgen physiology: receptor and metabolic disorders. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, et al., eds. Endotext. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc.; 2016 Jun 12. Endotext site (free; registration required) • PubMed

Narayanan R, Coss CC, Dalton JT. Development of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2017.06.013PubMed

Takayama KI. The biological and clinical advances of androgen receptor function in age-related diseases and cancer [Review]. Endocr J. 2017. doi:10.1507/endocrj.EJ17-0328PubMed

Tirabassi G, Corona G, Biagioli A, et al. Influence of androgen receptor CAG polymorphism on sexual function recovery after testosterone therapy in late-onset hypogonadism. J Sex Med. 2015. doi:10.1111/jsm.12790PubMed

Tirabassi G, Corona G, Falzetti S, Delli Muti N, Maggi M, Balercia G. Influence of androgen receptor gene CAG and GGC polymorphisms on male sexual function: a cross-sectional study. Int J Endocrinol. 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/5083569PubMed

Tut TG, Ghadessy FJ, Trifiro MA, Pinsky L, Yong EL. Long polyglutamine tracts in the androgen receptor are associated with reduced trans-activation, impaired sperm production, and male infertility. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Nov. doi:10.1210/jcem.82.11.4385PubMed

Xiao Q, Wang L, Supekar S, et al. Structure of human steroid 5α-reductase 2 with the anti-androgen drug finasteride. Nat Commun. 2020 Oct 27. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19249-zPubMed

Yamazaki M, Sato A, Toyoshima KE, et al. Polymorphic CAG repeat numbers in the androgen receptor gene of female pattern hair loss patients. J Dermatol. 2011 Jul. doi:10.1111/j.1346-8138.2010.01060.xPubMed

Zhuo FL, Xu W, Wang L, Wu Y, Xu ZL, Zhao JY. Androgen receptor gene polymorphisms and risk for androgenetic alopecia: a meta-analysis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2012. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2230.2011.04186.xPubMed