Research by system / field of study

This bibliography compiles papers on adverse effects of 5-ARIs. A separate bibliography, Related research, includes more papers which could be relevant to future research on 5-ARI adverse effects.

See also: Research by symptom / clinical presentation

Genetics & epigenetics

See also: DNA damage and repair and Related research: Genetics.

Bauman TM, Sehgal PD, Johnson KA, et al. Finasteride treatment alters tissue specific androgen receptor expression in prostate tissues. Prostate. 2014;74(9):923–932. doi:10.1002/pros.22810 | PubMed

Bissegger S, Martyniuk CJ, Langlois VS. Transcriptomic profiling in Silurana tropicalis testes exposed to finasteride. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2014;203:137–145. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.01.018 | PubMed

Cauci S, Chiriacò G, Cecchin E, et al. Androgen Receptor (AR) Gene (CAG)n and (GGN)n Length Polymorphisms and Symptoms in Young Males With Long-Lasting Adverse Effects After Finasteride Use Against Androgenic Alopecia. Sex Med. 2017 Mar;5(1):e61-e71. doi:10.1016/j.esxm.2016.11.001 | PubMed | PMC full text

Cecchin E, De Mattia E, Mazzon G, Cauci S, Trombetta C, Toffoli G. A pharmacogenetic survey of androgen receptor (CAG)n and (GGN)n polymorphisms in patients experiencing long term side effects after finasteride discontinuation. Int J Biol Markers. 2014;29(4):e310–e316. doi:10.5301/jbm.5000095 | PubMed

Ghassemi M, Ghaffarpour GH, Ghods S. The effect of GGC and CAG repeat polymorphisms on the androgen receptor gene in response to finasteride therapy in men with androgenetic alopecia. J Res Med Sci. 2019;24:104. doi:10.4103/jrms.JRMS_27_19 | PubMed

Howell S, Song W, Pastuszak A, Khera M. Differential Gene Expression in Post-Finasteride Syndrome Patients. J Sex Med. 2021 Sep;18(9):1479–1490. doi:10.1016/j.jsxm.2021.05.009 | PubMed

Ihentuge C, Csoka A. Epigenetic Effects of Finasteride on Human Leydig Cells. The FASEB Journal. 2020;34(S1). doi:10.1096/fasebj.2020.34.s1.03823

Ihentuge C, Csoka A. Finasteride induces Epigenetic Modulation of LSP1: A Gene implicated in Neutrophil Actin Dysfunction disease. FASEB J. 2022 May;36 Suppl 1. doi:10.1096/fasebj.2022.36.S1.R4708 • PubMed

Kolasa A, Rogińska D, Rzeszotek S, Machaliński B, Wiszniewska B. Paternal Finasteride Treatment Can Influence the Testicular Transcriptome Profile of Male Offspring-Preliminary Study. Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2021 Jul 31;43(2):868-886. doi:10.3390/cimb43020062 | PubMed

Melcangi RC, Casarini L, Marino M, et al. Altered methylation pattern of the SRD5A2 gene in the cerebrospinal fluid of post-finasteride patients: a pilot study. Endocr Connect. 2019;8(8):1118-1125. doi:10.1530/EC-19-0199 | PubMed

Traish, AM. The post-finasteride syndrome: Clinical manifestation of drug-induced epigenetics due to endocrine disruption. Curr Sex Health Rep. 2018;10:88–103. doi:10.1007/s11930-018-0161-6 | PubMed

Wakisaka N, Taira Y, Ishikawa M, et al. Effectiveness of finasteride on patients with male pattern baldness who have different androgen receptor gene polymorphism. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2005;10(3):293-294. doi:10.1111/j.0022-202X.2005.10123.x | PubMed

Animal studies

Dadras SS, Cai X, Abasolo I, Wang Z. Inhibition of 5alpha-reductase in rat prostate reveals differential regulation of androgen-response gene expression by testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Gene Expr. 2001;9(4-5):183–194. doi:10.3727/000000001783992551 | PubMed

Duarte-Guterman P, Langlois VS, Hodgkinson K, et al. The aromatase inhibitor fadrozole and the 5-reductase inhibitor finasteride affect gonadal differentiation and gene expression in the frog Silurana tropicalis. Sex Dev. 2009;3(6):333-341. doi:10.1159/000280586 | PubMed

García-García M, Sánchez-Hernández M, García-Hernández MP, García-Ayala A, Chaves-Pozo E. Role of 5α-dihydrotestosterone in testicular development of gilthead seabream following finasteride administration. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;174:48-55. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.07.024 | PubMed

Mohebali S, Hayati Roodbari N, Hajihosseini R, Parivar K. The effects of Finasteride on the expression of Dazl, Tsga10, Sycp3, Prm2 genes during spermatogenesis in testes of NMRI mice. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2020;24(15):8160-8163. doi:10.26355/eurrev_202008_22503 | PubMed


Lee YR, Im E, Kim H, et al. Untargeted Metabolomics and Steroid Signatures in Urine of Male Pattern Baldness Patients after Finasteride Treatment for a Year. Metabolites. 2020;10(4):E131. doi:10.3390/metabo10040131 | PubMed

Nasiri M, Nikolaou N, Parajes S, et al. 5α-Reductase Type 2 Regulates Glucocorticoid Action and Metabolic Phenotype in Human Hepatocytes. Endocrinology. 2015;156(8):2863–2871. doi:10.1210/en.2015-1149 | PubMed

Othonos N, Marjot T, Woods C, et al. Co-administration of 5α-reductase Inhibitors Worsens the Adverse Metabolic Effects of Prescribed Glucocorticoids. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Sep 1;105(9):e3316–28. doi:10.1210/clinem/dgaa408 | PubMed

Traish AM. Negative Impact of Testosterone Deficiency and 5α-Reductase Inhibitors Therapy on Metabolic and Sexual Function in Men. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;1043:473-526. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-70178-3_22 | PubMed

Traish AM, Guay AT, Zitzmann M. 5α-Reductase inhibitors alter steroid metabolism and may contribute to insulin resistance, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and vascular disease: a medical hypothesis. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig. 2014;20(3):73-80. doi:10.1515/hmbci-2014-0025 | PubMed

Neuroactive steroids

Caruso D, Abbiati F, Giatti S, et al. Patients treated for male pattern hair with finasteride show, after discontinuation of the drug, altered levels of neuroactive steroids in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;146:74-79. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2014.03.012 | PubMed

Dusková M, Hill M, Hanus M, Matousková M, Stárka L. Finasteride treatment and neuroactive steroid formation. Prague Med Rep. 2009;110(3):222-230. Journal site | PubMed

Favilla V, Cannarella R, Trovato F, et al. Effects of dutasteride on sex hormones and cerebrospinal steroids in patients treated for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Endocrine. 2021 Sep;73(3):712-718. doi:10.1007/s12020-021-02675-4 | PubMed

Lee YR, Im E, Kim H, et al. Untargeted Metabolomics and Steroid Signatures in Urine of Male Pattern Baldness Patients after Finasteride Treatment for a Year. Metabolites. 2020;10(4):E131. doi:10.3390/metabo10040131 | PubMed

Melcangi RC, Caruso D, Abbiati F, et al. Neuroactive steroid levels are modified in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of post-finasteride patients showing persistent sexual side effects and anxious/depressive symptomatology. J Sex Med. 2013;10(10):2598-2603. doi:10.1111/jsm.12269 | PubMed

Melcangi RC, Santi D, Spezzano R, et al. Neuroactive steroid levels and psychiatric and andrological features in post-finasteride patients. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;171:229-235. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.04.003 | PubMed

Animal studies

Bartolomé I, Llidó A, Darbra S, Pallarès M. Early postnatal neuroactive steroid manipulation differentially affects recognition memory and passive avoidance performance in male rats. Behav Brain Res. 2020;112833. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112833 | PubMed

Cumberland AL, Palliser HK, Crombie GK, Walker DW, Hirst JJ. Increased anxiety-like phenotype in female guinea pigs following reduced neurosteroid exposure in utero. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2017;58:50–58. doi:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2017.02.001 | PubMed

Darbra S, Pallarès M. Alterations in neonatal neurosteroids affect exploration during adolescence and prepulse inhibition in adulthood. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010;35(4):525-535. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.08.020 | PubMed

Giatti S, Foglio B, Romano S, et al. Effects of Subchronic Finasteride Treatment and Withdrawal on Neuroactive Steroid Levels and Their Receptors in the Male Rat Brain. Neuroendocrinology. 2016;103(6):746-757. doi:10.1159/000442982 | PubMed

Kokate TG, Banks MK, Magee T, Yamaguchi S, Rogawski MA. Finasteride, a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, blocks the anticonvulsant activity of progesterone in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Feb;288(2):679-84. Journal site | PubMed

Modol L, Casas C, Navarro X, et al. Neonatal finasteride administration alters hippocampal α4 and δ GABAAR subunits expression and behavioural responses to progesterone in adult rats. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014;17(2):259-273. doi:10.1017/S1461145713000989 | PubMed

Mòdol L, Darbra S, Vallèe M, Pallarès M. Alteration of neonatal Allopregnanolone levels affects exploration, anxiety, aversive learning and adult behavioural response to intrahippocampal neurosteroids. Behav Brain Res. 2013;241:96-104. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2012.11.043 | PubMed

Yawno T, Hirst JJ, Castillo-Melendez M, Walker DW. Role of neurosteroids in regulating cell death and proliferation in the late gestation fetal brain. Neuroscience. 2009;163(3):838-847. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.07.009 | PubMed

Neuroscience & neuropharmacology

Animal studies

Diviccaro S, Giatti S, Borgo F, et al. Treatment of male rats with finasteride, an inhibitor of 5alpha-reductase enzyme, induces long-lasting effects on depressive-like behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis, neuroinflammation and gut microbiota composition. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2019;99:206-215. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2018.09.021PubMed

Fanni S, Scheggi S, Rossi F, et al. 5alpha-reductase inhibitors dampen L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia via normalization of dopamine D1-receptor signaling pathway and D1-D3 receptor interaction. Neurobiol Dis. 2019;121:120–130. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2018.09.018 | PubMed

Giatti S, Di Domizio A, Diviccaro S, Falvo E, Caruso D, Contini A, Melcangi RC. Three-Dimensional Proteome-Wide Scale Screening for the 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitor Finasteride: Identification of a Novel Off-Target. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. doi:10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c02039 | PubMed

Li L, Kang YX, Ji XM, et al. Finasteride inhibited brain dopaminergic system and open-field behaviors in adolescent male rats. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2018;24(2):115-125. doi:10.1111/cns.12781 | PubMed

Litim N, Bourque M, Al Sweidi S, Morissette M, Di Paolo T. The 5α-reductase inhibitor Dutasteride but not Finasteride protects dopamine neurons in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. Neuropharmacology. 2015;97:86‐94. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.05.015 | PubMed

Martín-García E, Darbra S, Pallarés M. Neonatal finasteride induces anxiogenic-like profile and deteriorates passive avoidance in adulthood after intrahippocampal neurosteroid administration. Neuroscience. 2008;154(4):1497-1505. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.04.062 | PubMed

Mendell AL, Creighton SD, Wilson HA, et al. Inhibition of 5α Reductase Impairs Cognitive Performance, Alters Dendritic Morphology and Increases Tau Phosphorylation in the Hippocampus of Male 3xTg-AD Mice. Neuroscience. 2020 Mar 1;429:185-202. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.01.011 | PubMed

Modol L, Casas C, Navarro X, et al. Neonatal finasteride administration alters hippocampal α4 and δ GABAAR subunits expression and behavioural responses to progesterone in adult rats. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014;17(2):259-273. doi:10.1017/S1461145713000989 | PubMed

Römer B, Pfeiffer N, Lewicka S, et al. Finasteride treatment inhibits adult hippocampal neurogenesis in male mice. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2010;43(5):174-178. doi:10.1055/s-0030-1249095 | PubMed