Fibrosis & organ dysfunction

See also: Penile disorders: diagnosis & treatment and Research review: Alterations to penile and prostatic tissue


Adler M, Mayo A, Zhou X, et al. Principles of cell circuits for tissue repair and fibrosis. iScience. 2020. doi:10.1016/j.isci.2020.100841PubMed • PMC full text

Bhattacharyya S, Fang F, Tourtellotte W, Varga J. Egr-1: new conductor for the tissue repair orchestra directs harmony (regeneration) or cacophony (fibrosis). J Pathol. 2013. doi:10.1002/path.4131PubMedPMC full text

Kim KK, Sheppard D, Chapman HA. TGF-β1 signaling and tissue fibrosis. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2018. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a022293 • PubMed • PMC full text

Lodyga M, Hinz B. TGF-β1 – A truly transforming growth factor in fibrosis and immunity. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2020. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2019.12.010 • PubMed

Meng XM, Nikolic-Paterson DJ, Lan HY. TGF-β: the master regulator of fibrosis. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2016. doi:10.1038/nrneph.2016.48PubMed

Miyata Y, Matsuo T, Nakamura Y, Mitsunari K, Ohba K, Sakai H. Pathological significance of macrophages in erectile dysfunction including Peyronie’s disease. Biomedicines. 2021. doi:10.3390/biomedicines9111658 • PubMed • PMC full text

Piera-Velazquez S, Mendoza FA, Jimenez SA. Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) in the pathogenesis of human fibrotic diseases. J Clin Med. 2016. doi:10.3390/jcm5040045PubMed

Rosenbloom J, Macarak E, Piera-Velazquez S, Jimenez SA. Human fibrotic diseases: current challenges in fibrosis research. Methods Mol Biol. 2017. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-7113-8_1PubMed

Genitourinary conditions

El-Sakka AI. Reversion of penile fibrosis: current information and a new horizon. Arab J Urol. 2011. doi:10.1016/j.aju.2011.03.013 • PubMedPMC full text

Kim J, Drury R, Morenas R, Raheem O. Pathophysiology and grayscale ultrasonography of penile corporal fibrosis. Sex Med Rev. 2022. doi:10.1016/j.sxmr.2021.07.005PubMed

Leungwattanakij S, Bivalacqua TJ, Usta MF, et al. Cavernous neurotomy causes hypoxia and fibrosis in rat corpus cavernosum. J Androl. 2003. doi:10.1002/j.1939-4640.2003.tb02668.xPubMed

Milenkovic U, Albersen M, Castiglione F. The mechanisms and potential of stem cell therapy for penile fibrosis. Nat Rev Urol. 2019. doi:10.1038/s41585-018-0109-7PubMed

Patel DP, Christensen MB, Hotaling JM, Pastuszak AW. A review of inflammation and fibrosis: implications for the pathogenesis of Peyronie’s disease. World J Urol. 2020. doi:10.1007/s00345-019-02815-6PubMedPMC Central

Wiafe B, Adesida A, Churchill T, Adewuyi EE, Li Z, Metcalfe P. Hypoxia-increased expression of genes involved in inflammation, dedifferentiation, pro-fibrosis, and extracellular matrix remodeling of human bladder smooth muscle cells. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2017. doi:10.1007/s11626-016-0085-2PubMed

Kidney disease / injury

Baig MS, Kolasa-Wołosiuk A, Pilutin A, et al. Finasteride-induced inhibition of 5α-reductase type 2 could lead to kidney damage-animal, experimental study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019. doi:10.3390/ijerph16101726PubMed

Castellano G, Stasi A, Intini A, et al. Endothelial dysfunction and renal fibrosis in endotoxemia-induced oliguric kidney injury: possible role of LPS-binding protein. Crit Care. 2014. doi:10.1186/s13054-014-0520-2PubMed

Liu Y. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of renal fibrosis. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2011. doi:10.1038/nrneph.2011.149PubMed

Systemic sclerosis

Adigun R, Goyal A, Bansal P, Hariz A. Systemic sclerosis. In: StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing; 2022.

Cantatore FP, Maruotti N, Corrado A, Ribatti D. Angiogenesis dysregulation in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis. Biomed Res Int. 2017. doi:10.1155/2017/5345673PubMed

Jaeger VK, Walker UA. Erectile dysfunction in systemic sclerosis. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2016. doi:10.1007/s11926-016-0597-5PubMed

Ota Y, Kuwana M. Endothelial cells and endothelial progenitor cells in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis. Eur J Rheumatol. 2020;7(Suppl 3):S139-S146. doi:10.5152/eurjrheum.2019.19158PubMedPMC full text

Endotoxemia / lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation

See also: Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation

Castellano G, Stasi A, Intini A, et al. Endothelial dysfunction and renal fibrosis in endotoxemia-induced oliguric kidney injury: possible role of LPS-binding protein. Crit Care. 2014. doi:10.1186/s13054-014-0520-2PubMed

Vallejos A, Olivares P, Gatica S, et al. Endotoxemia-induced endothelial fibrosis inhibition improves hypotension, tachycardia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, cytokine response, oxidative stress, and survival. Lab Invest. 2019. doi:10.1038/s41374-019-0237-6PubMed

Wang F, Liu W, Jiang Q, et al. Lipopolysaccharide-induced testicular dysfunction and epididymitis in mice: a critical role of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Biol Reprod. 2019. doi:10.1093/biolre/ioy235PubMed