Penile disorders: diagnosis & treatment

Anatomy & physiology

Diallo D, Zaitouna M, Alsaid B, et al. The visceromotor and somatic afferent nerves of the penis. J Sex Med. 2015. doi:10.1111/jsm.12851 • PubMed

Goldstein AMB, Padma-Nathan H. The microarchitecture of the intracavernosal smooth muscle and the cavernosal fibrous skeleton. J Urol. 1990. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(17)39677-5

Schulster M, Bernie AM, Ramasamy R. The role of estradiol in male reproductive function. Asian J Androl. 2016. doi:10.4103/1008-682X.173932 • PubMed • PMC full text

Shen ZJ, Zhou XL, Lu YL, Chen ZD. Effect of androgen deprivation on penile ultrastructure. Asian J Androl. 2003. PubMed

Thornbury KD, Hollywood MA, Sergeant GP. Ion channels and intracellular calcium signalling in corpus cavernosum. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019. doi:10.1007/978-981-13-5895-1_7 • PubMed

Tu LH, Spektor M, Ferrante M, Mathur M. MRI of the penis: indications, anatomy, and pathology. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2020. doi:10.1067/j.cpradiol.2018.12.004 • PubMed

Weech D, Ameer MA, Ashurst JV. Anatomy, Abdomen and Pelvis, Penis Dorsal Nerve. StatPearls Publishing; 2022. PubMed


Abualruz AR, O’Malley R, Ponnatapura J, et al. MRI of common penile pathologies and penile prostheses. Abdom Radiol (NY). 2020. doi:10.1007/s00261-019-02080-6 • PubMed

Altun E. MR Imaging of the penis and urethra. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2019. doi:10.1016/j.mric.2018.09.006 • PubMed

Cozzi D, Verrone GB, Agostini S, et al. Acute penile trauma: imaging features in the emergency setting. Radiol Med. 2019. doi:10.1007/s11547-019-01065-1• PubMed

Jung DC, Park SY, Lee JY. Penile Doppler ultrasonography revisited. Ultrasonography. 2018. doi:10.14366/usg.17022 • PubMed • PMC full text

Lindquist CM, Nikolaidis P, Mittal PK, Miller FH. MRI of the penis. Abdom Radiol (NY). 2020. doi:10.1007/s00261-019-02301-y • PubMed

Nakahara T, Narula J, Tijssen JGP, et al. 18F-fluoride positron emission tomographic imaging of penile arteries and erectile dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2018.10.076 • PubMed

Parmar M, Masterson JM, Masterson TA 3rd. The role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of Peyronie’s disease. Curr Opin Urol. 2020. doi:10.1097/MOU.0000000000000754 • PubMed

Shenoy-Bhangle A, Perez-Johnston R, Singh A. Penile imaging. Radiol Clin North Am. 2012. doi:10.1016/j.rcl.2012.08.009 • PubMed

Conditions, diagnosis & treatment

Gül M, Fode M, Urkmez A, et al. A clinical guide to rare male sexual disorders. Nat Rev Urol. 2023. doi:10.1038/s41585-023-00803-5 • PubMed

Israeli JM, Lokeshwar SD, Efimenko IV, Masterson TA, Ramasamy R. The potential of platelet-rich plasma injections and stem cell therapy for penile rejuvenation. Int J Impot Res. 2022. doi:10.1038/s41443-021-00482-z • PubMed • PMC full text

Jiang N, Wu C, Zhou X, Zhai G, Wu J. Cavernous nerve injury resulted erectile dysfunction and regeneration. J Immunol Res. 2021. doi:10.1155/2021/5353785PubMedPMC full text

Khera, M for Grand Rounds in Urology. Disease modification and ED stem cells, shockwave, PRP [Video]. YouTube. Published October 7, 2019. Accessed July 16, 2022.

Lefaucheur JP. Measurement of electrochemical conductance of penile skin using Sudoscan®: a new tool to assess neurogenic impotence. Neurophysiol Clin. 2017. doi:10.1016/j.neucli.2017.05.092 • PubMed

Mowa CN, Hoch R, Montavon CL, Jesmin S, Hindman G, Hou G. Estrogen enhances wound healing in the penis of rats. Biomed Res. 2008. doi: 10.2220/biomedres.29.267 • PubMed

Oztekin CV, Yilmaz-Oral D, Kaya-Sezginer E, et al. Beneficial effects of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells on persistent erectile dysfunction after treatment of 5-alpha reductase inhibitor in rats. J Sex Med. 2021. doi:10.1016/j.jsxm.2021.02.005 • PubMed

Parmar M, Masterson JM, Masterson TA 3rd. The role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of Peyronie’s disease. Curr Opin Urol. 2020. doi:10.1097/MOU.0000000000000754 • PubMed

Shafik A, Ahmed I, El Sibai O, Shafik AA. The hypoactive corpora cavernosa with degenerative erectile dysfunction: a new syndrome. BMC Urol. 2006. doi:10.1186/1471-2490-6-13 • PubMedPMC full text

Terrier JE, Tal R, Nelson CJ, Mulhall JP. Penile sensory changes after plaque incision and grafting surgery for Peyronie’s disease. J Sex Med. 2018 Oct. doi:10.1016/j.jsxm.2018.07.020 • PubMed

Waldinger MD, van Coevorden RS, Schweitzer DH, Georgiadis J. Penile anesthesia in post SSRI sexual dysfunction (PSSD) responds to low-power laser irradiation: a case study and hypothesis about the role of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.11.031 • PubMed

Wang Y, Wang Y, Cong R, et al. Restoration of erectile function by suppression of corporal apoptosis and oxidative stress with losartan in aged rats with erectile dysfunction. Andrology. 2020. doi:10.1111/andr.12757 • PubMed

Wiggins A, Farrell MR, Tsambarlis P, Levine LA. The penile sensitivity ratio: a novel application of biothesiometry to assess changes in penile sensitivity. J Sex Med. 2019. doi:10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.01.002 • PubMed

Yang X, Wang M, Simeoni S, Malladi P, Liechti MD, Panicker JN. Men reporting genital numbness – Is there a neurological cause? (643). Poster presented at: International Continence Society annual meeting; September 6, 2019; Gothenburg, Sweden. Details • Poster (PDF)