Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

Note: Within each section, papers are in reverse chronological order.


Sun S, Wang YC, Guo K, Du J, Zhou HJ, Ren AJ. [Finasteride inhibits microvascular density and VEGF expression in the seminal vesicle of rats]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2018 May. Chinese. PubMed

Finasteride can inhibit the expression of VEGF in the seminal vesicle tissue of the rat and hence suppress the angiogenesis of microvessels of the seminal vesicle.


Hatanaka T, Lulic Z, Mefo T, Booth C, Harrison E, Ong G. Change in hair growth-related gene expression profile in human isolated hair follicles induced by 5-alpha reductase inhibitors – dutasteride and finasteride – in the presence of testosterone. Singapore Med J. 2021 Jun 22. DOI • PubMed

Lee CY, Su CH, Chiang CY, Wu CN, Kuan YH. Observation of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and the potential effect of promoting hair growth treated with Chinese herbal BeauTop. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2021 Feb 17. DOIPubMedPMC full text

VEGF is considered the most important mediator for the process of angiogenesis involved in hair growth development.

Wang ZD, Feng Y, Sun L, et al. Anti-androgenetic alopecia effect of policosanol from Chinese wax by regulating abnormal hormone levels to suppress premature hair follicle entry into the regression phase. Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Apr. DOIPubMed

The cutaneous expression or activity of key mediators of hair growth, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF), was measured.

Jain R, De-Eknamkul W. Potential targets in the discovery of new hair growth promoters for androgenic alopecia. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2014 Jul. DOIPubMed

Growth factors affecting hair growth (i.e., IGF-1, HGF, FGF-7 and VEGF)

Lachgar S, Charveron M, Sarraute J, Gall Y, Bonafe JL. Anti-androgens and estrogens: modulators of VEGF expression in cultured hair dermal papilla cells. Exp Dermatol. 1999 Aug. DOIPubMed

Lachgar S, Charvéron M, Aries MF, Gall Y, Bonafé JL. Follicules pilaires et “vascular endothelial growth factor” [Hair follicles and vascular endothelial growth factor]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1998 Apr. French. PubMed

Endocrinology & neuroendocrinology

Cai J, Hong Y, Weng C, Tan C, Imperato-McGinley J, Zhu YS. Androgen stimulates endothelial cell proliferation via an androgen receptor/VEGF/cyclin A-mediated mechanism. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011 Apr. DOIPubMedPMC full text

Lecce L, Lam YT, Lindsay LA, et al. Aging impairs VEGF-mediated, androgen-dependent regulation of angiogenesis. Mol Endocrinol. 2014 Sep. DOIPubMedPMC full text

Zamora-Sánchez CJ, Hansberg-Pastor V, Salido-Guadarrama I, Rodríguez-Dorantes M, Camacho-Arroyo I. Allopregnanolone promotes proliferation and differential gene expression in human glioblastoma cells. Steroids. 2017 Mar. DOIPubMed

Genetic medicine

Albasher G, Bin-Jumah M, Alfarraj S, et al. Prolonged use of finasteride-induced gonadal sex steroids alterations, DNA damage and menstrual bleeding in women. Biosci Rep. 2020 Feb 28. DOIPubMedPMC full text

VGEF underexpressed; VKOR overexpressed (Fig. 5).

Oncology & pharmacology

Papers on prostate cancer are in the Prostatic Conditions section

Chatterjee S, Bhattacharjee B. Use of natural molecules as anti-angiogenic inhibitors for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. Bioinformation. 2012. DOIPubMedPMC full text

Atif F, Sayeed I, Yousuf S, et al. Progesterone inhibits the growth of human neuroblastoma: in vitro and in vivo evidence. Mol Med. 2011 Sep-Oct. DOIPubMedPMC full text

P4 suppressed the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9, MMP-2), which are involved in tumor vascular development.


See Related research: Ophthalmology (VEGF is covered)

Prostatic conditions

Peng Y, Peng C, Wu Y, Sun C, Li X. Chemical profiles of the active fraction from Prinsepia utilis Royle leaves and its anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia evaluation in animal models. BMC Complement Med Ther. 2021 Oct 29. DOIPubMed

Abdel-Aziz AM, Gamal El-Tahawy NF, Salah Abdel Haleem MA, Mohammed MM, Ali AI, Ibrahim YF. Amelioration of testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia using febuxostat in rats: The role of VEGF/TGFβ and iNOS/COX-2. Eur J Pharmacol. 2020 Dec 15. DOIPubMed

Angrimani DSR, Francischini MCP, Brito MM, Vannucchi CI. Prostatic hyperplasia: Vascularization, hemodynamic and hormonal analysis of dogs treated with finasteride or orchiectomy. PLoS One. 2020 Jun 25. DOIPubMedPMC full text

Park HK, Kim SK, Lee SW, et al. A herbal formula, comprising Panax ginseng and bee-pollen, inhibits development of testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in male Wistar rats. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2017 Nov. DOIPubMedPMC full text

Khwaja MA, Nawaz G, Muhammad S, Jamil MI, Faisal M, Akhter S. The effect of two weeks preoperative finasteride therapy in reducing prostate vascularity. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2016 Mar. PubMed

Kim J, Davis JW, Klein EA, et al. Tissue effects in a randomized controlled trial of short-term finasteride in early prostate cancer. EBioMedicine. 2016 May. DOIPubMedPMC full text

Kim SK, Seok H, Park HJ, et al. Inhibitory effect of curcumin on testosterone induced benign prostatic hyperplasia rat model. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Oct 22. DOIPubMed • PMC full text

Montico F, Kido LA, Hetzl AC, Cagnon VH. Prostatic angiogenic responses in late life: antiangiogenic therapy influences and relation with the glandular microenvironment in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Prostate. 2015 Apr 1. DOIPubMed

Said MM, Hassan NS, Schlicht MJ, Bosland MC. Flaxseed suppressed prostatic epithelial proliferation in a rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2015. DOIPubMed

Tian HL, Zhao CX, Wu HY, et al. Finasteride reduces microvessel density and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in renal tissue of diabetic rats. Am J Med Sci. 2015 Jun. DOIPubMed

Kido LA, Hetzl AC, Cândido EM, Montico F, Lorencini RM, Cagnon VH. Antiangiogenic and finasteride therapies: responses of the prostate microenvironment in elderly mice. Life Sci. 2014 Jun 13. DOIPubMed

Aboumarzouk OM, Aslam MZ, Wedderburn A, Turner K, Hughes O, Kynaston HG. Should finasteride be routinely given preoperatively for TURP? ISRN Urol. 2013 Jul 29. DOIPubMedPMC full text

Das K, Lorena PD, Ng LK, et al. Differential expression of steroid 5alpha-reductase isozymes and association with disease severity and angiogenic genes predict their biological role in prostate cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010 Aug 16. DOIPubMed

Park DS, Shim JY. Histologic influence of doxazosin and finasteride in benign prostatic hyperplasia accompanying chronic inflammation. Urol Int. 2008. DOIPubMed

Sun H, Li TJ, Sun LN, et al. Inhibitory effect of traditional Chinese medicine Zi-Shen Pill on benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jan 17. DOIPubMed

Canda AE, Mungan MU, Yilmaz O, Yorukoglu K, Tuzel E, Kirkali Z. Effects of finasteride on the vascular surface density, number of microvessels and vascular endothelial growth factor expression of the rat prostate. Int Urol Nephrol. 2006. DOIPubMed

Lekas AG, Lazaris AC, Chrisofos M, et al. Finasteride effects on hypoxia and angiogenetic markers in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology. 2006 Aug. DOIPubMed

Donohue JF, Hayne D, Karnik U, Thomas DR, Foster MC. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial showing that finasteride reduces prostatic vascularity rapidly within 2 weeks. BJU Int. 2005 Dec. DOIPubMed

Liu XD, Li H, Bu H, et al. [Effects of finasteride on capillary in the ventral prostate of rat]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2004 Mar. Chinese. PubMed

Pareek G, Shevchuk M, Armenakas NA, et al. The effect of finasteride on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density: a possible mechanism for decreased prostatic bleeding in treated patients. J Urol. 2003 Jan. DOIPubMed

Häggström S, Tørring N, Møller K, et al. Effects of finasteride on vascular endothelial growth factor. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2002. DOI • PubMed