Merck-related articles on finasteride for hair loss

This bibliography consists of medical literature on finasteride for male pattern hair loss in which Merck played a direct or indirect role. An example of a direct role would be a study sponsored by Merck with researchers employed by Merck as co-authors. An example of an indirect role would be when external physicians who had previously worked with Merck as trial investigators or consultants wrote treatment guidelines including finasteride for hair loss.

KEY: 💰 = funding by Merck disclosed in article; underlined = engaged by Merck as a consultant, investigator and/or speaker at any time; underlined italics = employee of Merck. See also: Details on Merck researchers and affiliated dermatologists (“key opinion leaders”).

Era of safety concerns (2011–present)

2024

Perelman MA [Read case files for Merck’s law firm]. Comment on “The post-finasteride syndrome: possible etiological mechanisms and symptoms”. Int J Impot Res. 2024. doi:10.1038/s41443-024-00886-7

2023

Young PC, Mahajan C, Shapiro JTosti A. Digital health platforms expand access and improve care for male androgenetic alopecia. Int J Dermatol. 2023. doi:10.1111/ijd.16452 • PubMed • PMC full text

2020

Harrell MB, Ho K, Te AE, Kaplan SA, Chughtai B. An evaluation of the federal adverse events reporting system data on adverse effects of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. World J Urol. 2020. doi:10.1007/s00345-020-03314-9 • PubMed

2018

Baas WR, Butcher MJ, Lwin A, […], McVary KT. A review of the FAERS data on 5-alpha reductase inhibitors: implications for postfinasteride syndrome. Urology. 2018. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2018.06.022 • PubMed

💰 Meijer M, Thygesen LC, Green A, et al. Finasteride treatment and male breast cancer: a register-based cohort study in four Nordic countries. Cancer Med. 2018. doi:10.1002/cam4.1273 • PubMed • PMC full text

2017

Fertig R, Shapiro J, Bergfeld W, Tosti A. Investigation of the plausibility of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor syndrome. Skin Appendage Disord. 2017. doi:10.1159/000450617 | PubMed

Gupta NK, McVary KT. Re: Risk of erectile dysfunction associated with use of 5α-reductase inhibitors for benign prostatic hyperplasia or alopecia: population based studies using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Eur Urol. 2017. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2017.03.043 • PubMed

Hagberg KW, Divan HA, Fang SC, Nickel JC, Jick SS. Risk of gynecomastia and breast cancer associated with the use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Clin Epidemiol. 2017. doi:10.2147/CLEP.S124674 • PubMed

Hagberg KW, Divan HA, Nickel JC, Jick SS. Risk of incident antidepressant-treated depression associated with use of 5α-reductase inhibitors compared with use of α-blockers in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a population-based study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Pharmacotherapy. 2017. doi:10.1002/phar.1925 • PubMed

2016

Hagberg KW, Divan HA, Persson R, Nickel JC, Jick SS. Risk of erectile dysfunction associated with use of 5-α reductase inhibitors for benign prostatic hyperplasia or alopecia: population based studies using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. BMJ. 2016. doi:10.1136/bmj.i4823 • PubMedSee also: Gupta & McVary, 2017 commenting on this study.

2012

Olsen EA, Whiting DA, Savin R, Rodgers A, Johnson-Levonas AO, Round E, Rotonda J, Kaufman KD, for the Male Pattern Hair Loss Study Group. Global photographic assessment of men aged 18 to 60 years with male pattern hair loss receiving finasteride 1 mg or placebo. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2011.10.027 • PubMed


Marketing period (1998–2010)

2009

Tosti A, Duque-Estrada B. Treatment strategies for alopecia. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009. doi:10.1517/14656560902876368 • PubMed

2008

Kaufman KD, Rotonda J, Shah AK, Meehan AG. Long-term treatment with finasteride 1 mg decreases the likelihood of developing further visible hair loss in men with androgenetic alopecia (male pattern hair loss). Eur J Dermatol. 2008. doi:10.1684/ejd.2008.0436 • PubMed

Kaufman KD, Girman CJ, Round EM, Johnson-Levonas AO, Shah AK, Rotonda J. Progression of hair loss in men with androgenetic alopecia (male pattern hair loss): long-term (5-year) controlled observational data in placebo-treated patients. Eur J Dermatol. 2008. doi:10.1684/ejd.2008.0435 • PubMed

2006

💰 Price VH, Menefee E [consultant], Sanchez M, Kaufman KD. Changes in hair weight in men with androgenetic alopecia after treatment with finasteride (1 mg daily): three- and 4-year results. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2005.07.001 • PubMed

2005

💰 Leavitt M, Perez-Meza D, Rao NA, Barusco M, Kaufman KD, Ziering C. Effects of finasteride (1 mg) on hair transplant. Dermatol Surg. 2005. doi:10.1111/j.1524-4725.2005.31202 • PubMed

💰 [“Unrestricted educational grant”] Olsen EA, Messenger AG, Shapiro J, Bergfeld WF, Hordinsky MK, Roberts JL, Stough D, Washenik K, Whiting DA. Evaluation and treatment of male and female pattern hair loss. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2004.04.008 • PubMed

💰 [“Educational grant”] Stough D, Stenn K, Haber R, Parsley WM, Vogel JE, Whiting DA, Washenik K. Psychological effect, pathophysiology, and management of androgenetic alopecia in men. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005. doi:10.4065/80.10.1316 • PubMed

2004

Libecco JF, Bergfeld WF. Finasteride in the treatment of alopecia. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2004. doi:10.1517/14656566.5.4.933 • PubMed

Tosti A, Pazzaglia M, Soli M, Rossi A, Rebora A, Atzori L, Barbareschi M, Benci M, Voudouris S, Vena GA. Evaluation of sexual function with an international index of erectile function in subjects taking finasteride for androgenetic alopecia. Arch Dermatol. 2004. doi:10.1001/archderm.140.7.857 • PubMed

2003

Shapiro J, Kaufman KD. Use of finasteride in the treatment of men with androgenetic alopecia (male pattern hair loss). J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2003. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.2003.12167.x • PubMed

💰 Whiting DA, Olsen EA, Savin R, Halper L, Rodgers A, Wang L, Hustad C, Palmisano J, for the Finasteride Male Pattern Hair Loss Study Group. Efficacy and tolerability of finasteride 1 mg in men aged 41 to 60 years with male pattern hair loss. Eur J Dermatol. 2003;13(2):150-160. PubMed

2002

💰 Finasteride Male Pattern Hair Loss Study Group. Long-term (5-year) multinational experience with finasteride 1 mg in the treatment of men with androgenetic alopecia. Eur J Dermatol. 2002 Jan-Feb;12(1):38-49. PubMed

Olsen EA, Hordinsky M, Roberts JL, Whiting DA; Dermatologic Consortium for Women’s Health. Female pattern hair loss. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002. doi:10.1067/mjd.2002.124068 • PubMed

💰 Price VH, Menefee E, Sanchez M, Ruane P, Kaufman KD. Changes in hair weight and hair count in men with androgenetic alopecia after treatment with finasteride, 1 mg, daily. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002. doi:10.1067/mjd.2002.120537 • PubMed

Stough DB, Rao NA, Kaufman KD, Mitchell C. Finasteride improves male pattern hair loss in a randomized study in identical twins. Eur J Dermatol. 2002 Jan-Feb;12(1):32-7. PubMed

2001

Tosti A, Piraccini BM, Soli M. Evaluation of sexual function in subjects taking finasteride for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2001. doi:10.1046/j.1468-3083.2001.00315.x • PubMed

Whiting DA. Advances in the treatment of male androgenetic alopecia: a brief review of finasteride studies. Eur J Dermatol. 2001 Jul-Aug;11(4):332-4. PubMed

Whiting DA. Possible mechanisms of miniaturization during androgenetic alopecia or pattern hair loss. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001. doi:10.1067/mjd.2001.117428 • PubMed

2000

💰 Price VH, Roberts JL, Hordinsky M, Olsen EA, Savin R, Bergfeld W, Fiedler V, Lucky A, Whiting DA, Pappas F, Culbertson J, Kotey P, Meehan A, Waldstreicher J. Lack of efficacy of finasteride in postmenopausal women with androgenetic alopecia. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000. doi:10.1067/mjd.2000.107953 • PubMed

Tosti A, Piraccini BM. Finasteride and the hair cycle. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000. doi:10.1067/mjd.2000.103272 • PubMed

💰 Van Neste D, Fuh V, Sanchez-Pedreno P, […], Whiting D, Roberts J, […], Tosti A, […], Kaufman KD. Finasteride increases anagen hair in men with androgenetic alopecia. Br J Dermatol. 2000. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.2000.03780.x • PubMed

1999

💰 Drake L, Hordinsky M, Fiedler V, Swinehart J, Unger WP, Cotterill PC, Thiboutot DM, Lowe N, Jacobson C, Whiting D, Stieglitz S, Kraus SJ, Griffin EI, Weiss D, Carrington P, Gencheff C, Cole GW, Pariser DM, Epstein ES, Tanaka W, Dallob A, Vandormael K, Geissler L, Waldstreicher J. The effects of finasteride on scalp skin and serum androgen levels in men with androgenetic alopecia. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999. PubMed

Kaufman KD, Dawber RP. Finasteride, a type 2 5ɑ-reductase inhibitor, in the treatment of men with androgenetic alopecia. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 1999. doi:10.1517/13543784.8.4.403 • PubMed

💰 Leyden J, Dunlap F, Miller B, Winters P, Lebwohl M, Hecker D, Kraus S, Baldwin H, Shalita A, Draelos Z, Markou M, Thiboutot D, Rapaport M, Kang S, Kelly T, Pariser D, Webster G, Hordinsky M, Rietschel R, Katz HI, Terranella L, Best S, Round E, Waldstreicher J. Finasteride in the treatment of men with frontal male pattern hair loss. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999. doi:10.1016/s0190-9622(99)70081-2 • PubMed

Olsen EA. Efficacy of finasteride 1 mg in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in men. Exp Dermatol. 1999. PubMed

💰 Overstreet JW, Fuh VL, Gould J, […], Hellstrom W, […], Kaufman KD. Chronic treatment with finasteride daily does not affect spermatogenesis or semen production in young men. J Urol. 1999. PubMed

Price VH. Treatment of hair loss. N Engl J Med. 1999. doi:10.1056/NEJM199909233411307 • PubMed

Price VH. Authors’ conflicts of interest: a disclosure and editors’ reply. N Engl J Med. 1999. doi:10.1056/NEJM199911183412113 • PubMed

Responses to Frankel, 1999

Kaufman KD. Finasteride, 1 mg (Propecia), is the optimal dose for the treatment of men with male pattern hair loss. Arch Dermatol. 1999. doi:10.1001/rmrm.135.8.989 • Via JAMA Dermatology sitePubMed

Roberts JL. Finasteride in a 1-mg dose is safe and effective. Arch Dermatol. 1999. doi:10.1001/archderm.135.8.990 • Via JAMA Dermatology site • PubMed

💰 Roberts JL, Fiedler V, Imperato-McGinley J, Whiting D, Olsen E, […], Stough D, […], Bergfeld W, […], Drake L, Price VH, […], Gormley GJ, Kaufman KD. Clinical dose ranging studies with finasteride, a type 2 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, in men with male pattern hair loss. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(99)80052-8 • PubMed

Tosti A, Camacho-Martinez F, Dawber R [Co-authored article with KD Kaufman of Merck]. Management of androgenetic alopecia [CME article]. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 1999. PubMed

Tosti A, Piraccini BM. Androgenetic alopecia. Int J Dermatol. 1999. doi:10.1046/j.1365-4362.1999.00002.x • PubMed

Whiting DA, Waldstreicher J, Sanchez M, Kaufman KD. Measuring reversal of hair miniaturization in androgenetic alopecia by follicular counts in horizontal sections of serial scalp biopsies: results of finasteride 1 mg treatment of men and postmenopausal women. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 1999. doi:10.1038/sj.jidsp.5640230PubMed

1998

💰 Kaufman KD, Olsen EA, Whiting D, Savin R, DeVillez R, Bergfeld W, Price VH, Van Neste D, Roberts JL, Hordinsky M, Shapiro J, Binkowitz B, Gormley GJ, and the Finasteride Male Pattern Hair Loss Study Group. Finasteride in the treatment of men with androgenetic alopecia. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(98)70007-6 • PubMed

Shapiro J, Price VH. Hair regrowth. Therapeutic agents. Dermatol Clin. 1998. doi:10.1016/s0733-8635(05)70017-6 • PubMed

Whiting DA. Male pattern hair loss: current understanding. Int J Dermatol. 1998. doi:10.1046/j.1365-4362.1998.00542.x • PubMed

Rittmaster RS, Uno H, Povar ML, Mellin TN, Loriaux DL. The effects of N,N-diethyl-4-methyl-3-oxo-4-aza-5 alpha-androstane-17 beta-carboxamide, a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor and antiandrogen, on the development of baldness in the stumptail macaque. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987. doi:10.1210/jcem-65-1-188 • PubMed